The decentralized, non-tamperable and other technical characteristics of the blockchain have changed the trust relationship and reduced transaction costs. Blockchain technology is considered to be the core technology that has the potential to trigger a new wave of revolutions after steam engines, electricity, and the Internet. In the next 5-10 years, the blockchain may subvert many industries such as finance, entertainment, law, and supply chain.
“Bottom-level public chain → solution → industry application” is the recognized development logic in the blockchain industry. As the underlying technology, the public chain supports the development of the entire industry and determines the development process of the blockchain application ecology.
However, the public chain faces difficulties such as “impossible triangle model” and “market with a lot of roots and no long leaves”, which greatly limits the commercial landing process of blockchain technology.
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"Impossible triangle model"
The early evangelist of Bitcoin and the founder of Babbitt, Chang Hao, put forward in the article " Impossible triangle: safety, environmental protection, decentralization" , "the decentralization, safety and environmental protection of blockchain can only be used." Get the second."
In 2018, Vitalik Buterin (V God) also proposed the "impossible triangle" model in the Sharding FAQ : designing a public chain, decentralization, security, and scalability (high efficiency) can only take two.
Both Bitcoin and Ethereum have chosen the "impossible triangle" to ensure decentralization and security, while at the same time being ineffective. BTC's TPS is only 7 per second, Ethereum's TPS is about 15 per second, compared to a large number of commercial Visa, its TPS is as high as 24,000, BTC and ETH and other public chains, currently can not support fast high-frequency commercial business scenarios.
Breakthrough of Ethereum
Ethereum 2.0 will perform the Sharding (sharding) program, using 1024 parallel chains (ie, slices) to record transactions independently, and the different chains communicate with each other, unified and controlled and verified by a single main chain. In order to improve network throughput.
Single-chain performance bottlenecks, limited vertical expansion, can only be horizontally expanded, and multi-chain division of labor is an inevitable trend.
"A market with a lot of roots and no leaves"
At present, there are hundreds of blockchain public chains, most of which are designed for currency, and the public chain based on the operation of the real economy is extremely rare. Blockchain technology has been commercialized, and it has lagged behind. The blockchain industry has become a market with a lot of roots and no leaves.
Cross-chain project was born
The well-known cross-chain project Polkadot can connect different public chains (such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, EOS and other public chains), so that all access to the public chain can better complete information interaction. In the future, there will be more commercial side chains, such as bank chain, travel chain, music chain, etc., through Polkadot, to communicate with each other in a decentralized way to provide nutrients for upper-level applications.
However, cross-chain projects such as Polkadot are more oriented to blockchain design teams such as major public chain side chains, and are not friendly to traditional industry enterprises for blockchain technology development. Traditional industries, especially SMEs, do not have the ability to learn and develop at the bottom of the blockchain.
To promote the process of commercialization of blockchain technology, the public chain needs to carry out technology precipitation, providing a complete set of blockchain technology solutions for traditional enterprises.
Create a "one main and multiple side" architecture than the original chain
Starting from the original chain team, starting from the logic of the entire business, the first "one main chain multi-side chain" layered BaaS (Backend as a Service) platform – Bystack, to help users quickly create, manage and maintain enterprises Level blockchain commercial applications. It has the characteristics of low development cost, fast deployment, high performance, strong scalability, safe and reliable, and easy to use. Provide a one-stop solution for blockchains for developers or businesses.
Compared with the original chain, Bystack is essentially a cross-chain solution. It adopts a layered structure and breaks down the three characteristics of “decentralization, security, and efficiency”. At the same time, the Federation sidechain protocol allows digital assets to be transferred between the main chain and the side chain, allowing each "root (sidechain)" to communicate.
Layer1 – the public chain layer
It is responsible for issuing, transmitting, storing, and destroying assets with the Bytom public chain as the unified main chain Layer1. The Tensority PoW consensus is used to implement a Permissionless consensus ledger that guarantees decentralization and asset security.
Layer1 relies on the original chain (Bytom) to generate an average block every 2.5 minutes.
Layer2 – Vapor side chain layer
Layer2 uses pluggable technology, DPos+BBFT consensus algorithm. According to different business scenarios, different sidechains can be accessed, which is very flexible. The sidechain sacrifices part of the decentralization, but the performance is greatly improved, which can meet the commercial applications with high TPS requirements (high frequency) and large data volume.
In order to meet high throughput, the series is optimized over the original ChainBystack Layer2:
First, the consensus time optimization: based on BUTXO, design parallel window verification algorithm PSWV (Parallel Sliding Windows Validation), can verify more than 100 block transactions at the same time, single-chain transaction TPS can reach 10,000, fully meet high-frequency business application.
Second, network layer transmission optimization, Vapor neuron relay can transmit transaction and block information as quickly as possible in more complex environments;
Third, storage layer optimization, based on Redis + NoSQL multi-layer storage solution, so that I / O will not become a bottleneck, suitable for a large number of complex commercial transactions.
The Layer 2 side chain TPS can reach tens of thousands of levels , and can also be scaled up to achieve throughput of more than one million.
Layer3 – Blockcenter business abstraction layer
Layer3 Blockcenter, layered design, modular general business, abstracts various blockchain applications, and provides a common implementation framework. Allow users to superimpose their business like “ building blocks ” according to their own needs, and easily complete the blockchaining of business logic. Allows users to focus on their own business development without having to understand the technical principles of the underlying blockchain.
For example, through BlockCenter , merchants can integrate different blockchain services, such as adding identity services, multi-signatures, privacy transactions, etc., to meet the needs of the blockchain function. This eliminates the need to hire additional blockchain technicians to overcome the blockchain technical challenges, simply focus on your business.
In addition, BlockCenter also provides a variety of adaptation solutions: Bycoin is a mobile solution, Byone is a PC- side solution, and Bystore is the status of the APP store . Customers can choose the appropriate pluggable modules according to their needs, and quickly move the business to the original chain Bystack platform.
In short, Layer 3 is a strong business BaaS solution that allows users to quickly migrate their business applications to the blockchain without having to understand the underlying principles of the blockchain.
Enterprise or individual developers only need to register on the original Bystack platform, and then simply operate, they can put their business on the original chain Bystack platform, put it on the alliance chain, which undoubtedly greatly promoted the enterprise Blockchaining process.
According to the author's understanding, the "blockchain contract" project is based on the original chain Bystack than the original chain, using the main chain side chain system. The “blockchain contract” communicates with other blockchains through the Vapor sidechain to complete transactions and dividends with other digital assets.
Development in the side chain supports special scenarios such as high risk, testing, and high TPS. Core data settlement is anchored to the main chain.
It is reported that the current "blockchain contract" project has been short-listed in the final stage of the third China Blockchain Development Competition.
(Small notice: I will do an analysis on the "blockchain contract" project separately, so stay tuned!)
Compared with the original chain Bystack, through the "one main multi-side" layered structure, the division of labor is clear and synergistic, and at the same time meets the three characteristics of "decentralization, safety and efficiency".
Compared with the original BaaS (Backend as a Service) provided by Bystack, the blockchain technology is integrated, so that enterprises and developers can add common blockchains without having to understand the underlying technical principles of the blockchain. functional module. Greatly promoted the blockchain commercial process of major enterprises, especially small and medium-sized enterprises. Let the blockchain gradually shift from the "roots, no long leaves" market to the roots (public chains, side chains), the smooth flow of resources, and promote the prosperity of the upper application.
References in this article:
"The first major multi-sided architecture, released than the original BaaS platform Bystack white paper"
"Beyond the original chain CFO Li Zongchong: a commercial era with blockchains with Bystack"