Horizontal resolution of the deposit certificate panorama: Will the deposit certificate become a large-scale application scenario for the blockchain?

When many companies are looking for blockchain application scenarios, they will choose "storage certificate" as the entry point and use the blockchain as a depositing tool. Although the blockchain has a market for deposits, does the field really need this technology? This research takes this as the core, combines the common deposit certificate and the judicial deposit application scenario, analyzes it under the actual use of the current enterprise, and compiles it into a document for the enterprise to refer to when selecting the blockchain as the entry point. .

Application scenario

At this stage, the industry basically uses the blockchain as a depositing tool . The specific research situation is as follows:
1.1 Supply chain

At present, there are many enterprises that apply blockchain to the supply chain. The enterprise attaches the blockchain to its original business, and adds the core enterprise in the original business to the system. Through the technical characteristics of the blockchain, it creates a credible and secure supply chain platform for depositing the business. Important information within the process. For these companies, the “unavoidable modification” of the blockchain is the most important. They use the blockchain to create a credible certificate system for the entire business process.

1.2 Traceability

Traceability is also one of the most widely used areas of the blockchain at the present stage, and it is mostly traceable to cross-border products and food. For these products, the source of the product is extremely important, so a tool is needed to prove the authenticity of the source of the product and the traceability of the flow. The enterprise has built a product data traceability system through the blockchain to realize big data deposit . Therefore, to trace its essence, traceability is also the use of blockchain as a depositary tool.

1.3 Electronic contract

The electronic contract service provider, which is committed to the research and application of electronic contracts and blockchain deposits, provides users with more credible electronic contract signing, electronic contract depositing, judicial landing and other services through the blockchain. The blockchain is seen as a tool for depositing.

1.4 Deposit

There are also some companies that directly position themselves as a certificate-based platform, and create a platform that provides trusted data, digital identities and digital vouchers through blockchain technology to achieve trusted collaboration between partners and users.

1.5 Banking industry

Banks at home and abroad have introduced blockchain-related applications, such as cross-bank customer information sharing platforms between domestic banks, letter of credit information transmission systems, and financial industry peer-to-peer digital signing platforms based on blockchain.

The information sharing platform is led by the government to centralize data including departments of industry and commerce, taxation, courts, public security, land, and real estate, so that banks can make data adjustments when they are lending to enterprises or individuals. The application of this type of application to data is based on authenticity and multi-party sharing . In the original business process, it is difficult for the bank to obtain data, and the data is too scattered to make the data acquisition take more time. Moreover, the original data sharing platform cannot guarantee that the data will not be tampered with, and the blockchain appears to ensure the authenticity and security of the original data.

The domestic letter of credit information transmission system applies the blockchain technology to the letter of credit settlement system, and implements the opening, notification, delivery, acceptance message, and payment message of the letter of credit through the system, shortening the credit. The transmission time of the certificate and the document, and the blockchain technology reduce the possibility of data loss and tampering, and improve the security of the letter of credit business.

The signing of inter-bank digital refers to the signing of agreements between two or more parties in the financial industry. For a long time, there has not been a very efficient digital method for signing agreements between financial intermediaries. Therefore, banks develop a peer-to-peer digital signing platform based on blockchain , hoping to provide a more convenient, digital, secure and fair signing of complex agreements between financial peers. And the regulatory authorities can supervise the inspection system in real time.

So for the banking industry, the essence of using blockchain is to store important information, transaction data, etc., and read the data for verification when needed. Compared with the original data storage platform, based on the blockchain technology, the authenticity of the data can be guaranteed, and the data is more credible than the original system.

1.6 Copyright issues

The process of copyright protection of music and art is too complicated, and generally applies for copyright protection. After the approval, the works are no longer hot. If the creator can upload his work to a blockchain platform before publishing, and form its own copyright , it can more effectively realize the protection of the copyright of the creative work. This is also a major manifestation of the blockchain deposit requirements.

Similar to the demands of the music and art circles on the blockchain, the academic community also needs a similar platform to carry out research results, which can prevent academic plagiarism and fraud.

1.7 Government Affairs System
Based on the blockchain-based government system, the principle is similar to the information sharing platform built by the bank mentioned above. The blockchain-based government affairs system realizes the concentration of data including departments of industry and commerce, taxation, courts, public security, land, and real estate , and is used by various government departments to call data during business processing to verify the information provided by the business operators. Matches the actual data. Therefore, the demands of the government system for the blockchain are also the need for deposit.
1.8 Internet of Things

The essence of the Internet of Things is connected with big data. With the increasing number of IoT units installed, the consumption habits and behavior patterns collected by the Internet of Things have also multiplied. How to deal with this huge amount of data has become an urgent problem in the industry. . In this case, the Internet of Things requires a Ledger of Things, which needs to store all information that occurs in the Internet of Things , including transaction status, accounting information, etc. Currently, blockchain technology is the industry. The preferred technology, the company believes that the technical characteristics of the blockchain can provide credibility for the data deposit book.

1.9 Insurance industry

Insurance is a very complicated system. From the insurance to the payment, the participation of multiple parties is involved, and the risk of the system is high. The most common risks are loss of information, fraudulent behavior, etc. The auxiliary role of the blockchain in the insurance industry is to realize the full process data deposit in the early stage of business development, to provide a more credible data deposit platform for insurance companies and consumers, to prevent claims disputes, and increase if necessary. Provide evidence at the judicial level.

1.10 Cloud Storage

The biggest problem with cloud storage is that all files uploaded are lost and corrupted when the central storage server fails. At the same time, cloud storage still has problems such as privacy leaks. Combine cloud storage with blockchain to reduce the probability of data loss and better protect user data privacy. The essence is to realize the storage of a more secure and trusted data.

1.11 Public welfare undertakings

The biggest problem facing public welfare is the lack of trust. To obtain sustained support, charities must have credibility, and transparency of information is a prerequisite for credibility. At the same time, internal management of charities lacks the necessary supervision and auditing. The blockchain is combined with public welfare undertakings to carry out data storage for charitable information and necessary processes , and to improve the credibility of public welfare organizations through the technical characteristics of the blockchain (but this does not mean that the trust problem can be completely solved).

1.12 voting

Many countries are currently trying to replace the traditional paper voting system with an electronic voting system. Such electronic voting usually takes two forms: one to establish a polling station, to vote using a voting machine, and the other to vote on the Internet. Electronic voting devices used at polling stations have the advantage of reducing resource consumption compared to traditional paper voting, and voting in this form is now possible in remote areas. However, Internet voting has many problems, such as cyber attacks, process modifications, denial of service, and virus attacks on voting computers. The blockchain can be used as one of the technical means of electronic voting to make electronic voting more credible. Therefore, the electronic voting system realized by the blockchain is essentially a depositing platform that can be verified and reviewed at any time .

1.13 Other

There are still many industries in the market that also regard the blockchain as a means of depositing, such as medical care, e-commerce, and real estate. Through this technology, enterprises have realized a data depositing platform , and hope to provide credibility for data through this data depositing platform , while protecting the privacy of data .

Judicial deposit

When individual or collective rights are violated and the problem rises to the judicial level, evidence is needed to support the judge's decision. In this process, the original evidence provided by the people usually does not have credibility, and the notary public is required to achieve evidence preservation. Evidence provides credibility, and this process is a deposit. At present, there are two forms of deposit: traditional deposit and electronic deposit. Blockchain deposit certificate belongs to electronic deposit certificate, and blockchain technology is one of the means to realize electronic deposit certificate.

Due to the rapid development of Internet technology, a large amount of electronic data has been generated as evidence to promote the development of electronic deposit certificates. The emergence of blockchain technology has promoted research and experimentation in the field of blockchain. Whether it is traditional deposit certificate, electronic deposit certificate or blockchain deposit certificate, it is inevitable to obtain evidence, notarization and other evidence preservation process. Different forms of deposit certificate are only different in different stages of evidence, and it is the difference of this kind of carrier. Sexuality, the evidence characteristics and credibility of different forms of evidence are also different.

2.1 Traditional deposit

Traditional deposits are also notarized. In the judicial judgment, the parties need to submit the original evidence to provide the basis for the judgment. In order to satisfy the three principles of evidence (objective truth, relevance of evidence, legality of evidence), the notary office is required to carry out the original evidence provided by the party. Evidence preservation. The traditional evidence preservation mainly relies on the notary office. The entire forensic process relies on the supervision and witness of the notary public notary. Therefore, in the traditional deposit, the credibility of the original evidence is supported by the credit of the notary office and the notary.

2.2 Electronic deposit certificate

Electronic depository refers to the use of information technology to record what has happened in the virtual world or the real world through computer technology, so that in the future, it can be proved at what time and place.

In traditional deposits, there are expressions of both written and verbal meanings. However, in the actual operation process, the oral statement expresses the problem that the original evidence has low credibility due to the lack of the voucher, that is, the dictation is not. This problem also exists in electronic data. Due to the rapid development of the Internet, a large amount of electronic data has been generated as evidence, but electronic data is large, real-time, diverse, easy to destroy, easy to be tampered with, easy to forge, and difficult to save. These problems make electronic data impossible. It completely represents the original attitude of both parties, so there is also a problem similar to "oral ignorance" in electronic data. In addition to the above problems, the notary office is also unable to meet the needs of electronic data storage in terms of response time, application environment, cost, personnel, etc. when making evidence preservation for electronic data. In order to alleviate the above two problems, the electronic depository platform has gradually formed and developed rapidly, which is the inevitable result of technological development.

2.3 Blockchain deposit certificate

Blockchain deposit is a kind of electronic deposit certificate, which refers to the fixed and trusted electronic evidence through blockchain technology. Blockchain technology is one of the technical means to realize electronic deposit. The blockchain-based depository platform does not mean that the data stored in the platform can be used as the basis for judicial decisions. The court does not recognize the credibility of the original evidence because the platform uses the blockchain. Therefore, before the original evidence has the power to support the judicial judgment, there is still a process of notarization and preservation of the evidence of the traditional deposit. The original evidence must be verified by the judicial system to be "authentic" and "fidelity". The nature and value of the evidence.

Comparison of different forms of judicial deposit

The core of the evidence is whether it has credibility and who provides credibility for the evidence. Different forms of judicial deposit, the difference between the evidence carrier and the method of depositing the evidence leads to the difference in the source and support of the credibility of the evidence. At the same time, its cost and pain point are also different.

3.1 Deposit method

Traditional deposit:

As shown in the above figure, in the judicial system, due to the requirements of the principle of the three principles of evidence, the original evidence provided by the parties for the case cannot provide the basis for the judicial before the evidence is preserved by the judicial body. After the evidence is preserved, it is evidence of credibility. Based on the path generated by this evidence, the evidence can be divided into three key phases:

  • Before the evidence is preserved: At this time, the evidence is original evidence and cannot be supported by judicial judgment without preservation;
  • After the evidence is preserved: after the evidence of the impartiality is preserved, the evidence has credibility;
  • After the case is over: After the case is over, the evidence needs to be permanently archived.

For traditional deposits, the main body of evidence preservation at these three different stages is:

  • Stage 1: There is no specific preservation of the subject, usually the parties collect the original evidence after the dispute occurs;
  • Stage 2: Depository institution
  • Stage 3: Judiciary

Electronic deposit:

The difference between electronic deposit and traditional deposit is that the carrier of the original evidence has changed. The original evidence carrier of traditional deposit is mostly paper, and the original evidence carrier of electronic deposit is the Internet. From the three stages in which the evidence is divided, compared with the traditional deposit, the electronic deposit in the first stage, the original evidence preservation subject has changed. For the electronic deposit certificate, the first stage of evidence preservation is the electronic depository platform, but the preservation of the original evidence does not bring credibility to the original evidence, and the evidence still needs to be preserved by the notary office as a judicial decision. Basis.

From the three stages in which the above evidence is divided, for electronic deposits, the main subjects of evidence in these three stages are:

  • Phase 1: Electronic Depository Platform
  • Stage 2: Depository institution
  • Stage 3: Electronic Depository Platform, Judiciary

Blockchain deposit:

Although the blockchain technology is indispensable, the court does not recognize the credibility of the data because of technical support. Although it is compared with the traditional deposit and other technical means of electronic deposit, the blockchain deposit platform The data provided is more authentic, but the original evidence still needs to be preserved by the notary office before it can be used as a basis for supporting trials and judgments.

In the blockchain deposit, the main body of evidence preservation at different stages:

  • Phase 1: Blockchain Depository Platform
  • Stage 2: Depository institution
  • Stage 3: Blockchain deposit platform, judicial body
3.2 Credibility of evidence

The core of the evidence lies in credibility, different ways of depositing, and the sources of evidence credibility at different stages are also different.

  • Traditional deposit:
    • Stage 1: No credibility and protection
    • Phase 2: Credibility comes from the judiciary
    • Stage 3: Credibility is guaranteed by the judiciary
  • Electronic deposit:
    • Stage 1: No credibility and protection (Note: The data of the electronic depository platform is easier to forge, and the credibility is even lower than the traditional deposit)
    • Phase 2: Credibility comes from the judiciary
    • Stage 3: Credibility is guaranteed by the judiciary and the electronic depository platform
  • Blockchain deposit
    • Phase 1: Blockchain depositing platform, blockchain technology can provide credibility for the original evidence, but this part of the credibility is not so strong, but also requires the judiciary to do evidence preservation.
    • Phase 2: Credibility comes from the judiciary
    • Stage 3: Credibility is guaranteed by the judicial institution and the blockchain depository platform
3.3 Deposit cost
  • Traditional deposit:
    • Time cost and labor cost of collecting evidence
    • Notary office notary staff cost
  • Electronic deposit:
    • Electronic depository platform to build maintenance costs
    • Notary office notary staff cost
  • Blockchain deposit:
    • Blockchain platform construction maintenance cost
    • Notary office notary staff cost
3.4 Depositing pain points
  • Traditional deposit:
    • The evidence is easily falsified and difficult to preserve;
    • The oral evidence in the original evidence is of low credibility.
  • Electronic deposit
    • The biggest problem with the electronic deposit of non-blockchain is that the platform cannot be self-certified . Because of some problems with electronic data, the platform cannot guarantee that the original data can be completely preserved and not falsified, deleted, lost, etc.
    • The electronic deposit platform for non-blockchains is based on the Internet, and the centralization of the Internet makes electronic evidence lack credibility, creating barriers to trust ;
  • Blockchain deposit
    • Blockchain deposits, although in the early stage of evidence preservation, add transparency and trust to the evidence, but there are also problems. Since many blockchains are now stored as hashes that only store data or information, there may be an extreme situation where the party can't find the original text and can only provide a hash, but the judge needs to be able to provide evidence. The original text can only be judged, so if the original text is improperly preserved or only the hash is saved, there will be problems such as incomplete evidence and breakpoints.

Market expectations for blockchain

4.1 Pre-prevention

If the events are divided according to the three stages before, during and after the event, the company's expectation of the blockchain deposit data is to achieve pre-emptive prevention. Pre-existing prevention here means that there is a platform with credibility, which can generate data for the entire process of the incident before the incident occurs (such as contractual deposit in business negotiations). When the dispute occurs, the original can be omitted. The evidence preservation process directly provides platform data as evidence for judicial judgment, saving time for evidence collection, evidence preservation, and labor costs.

Although the blockchain makes the data more credible than the electronic certificate implemented by other technologies, if the blockchain deposit can play the role of the above-mentioned pre-existing prevention, the premise is that the data of the platform exists with credibility. And have the characteristics of innocence to meet the three principles of evidence, and is this the case?

4.2 “Save” and “Certificate”

The public's expectation for the blockchain depositing platform is that it can bring "protection" and "certification" to the stored data and information. Since electronic data mainly exists in the network environment or is generated in a certain network environment, in addition to the electronic data content itself, the process of generating it, the existence environment, and the like are also essential. It is believed that due to the technical characteristics of blockchain, it is possible to create a special environment for the generation process of electronic data. Therefore, the certificate-based platform based on blockchain gives the characteristics of “self-certification and innocence” of data . And can be used directly as evidence.

The fact is that the blockchain can indeed play a role in judicial deposits, but not as perfect as the public expects. The data of the blockchain depositing platform cannot be directly used as evidence. Although there is already a legal layer to explain the blockchain evidence, in the process of real judicial judgment, the blockchain will still be stored electronically. The original evidence of the evidence platform, to achieve a traditional evidence preservation process, can make it truly support the judicial judgment.

4.3 Providing credibility

The reason why people can think that the blockchain depositing platform can prevent it beforehand is because people think that the platform provides the dual guarantee of “storage” and “certificate” for the data, and the reason why this kind of cognition can be generated is because everyone believes The blockchain depositing platform has credibility, and this credibility is supported by this technology. Actually, this issue has been mentioned in the discussion above. The court does not recognize the credibility of the data because of technical support.

Practical Analysis of Blockchain Technology

Blockchain deposits do not play such an important role as one might expect, but they are not useless. As far as the judicial level is concerned, blockchain deposits have greatly improved the efficiency of evidence collection in the evidence forensics stage, which has a very significant effect. At this stage, the most accurate positioning of the blockchain depositing platform is the auxiliary system of the judiciary . Some problems can be solved through it, and some problems cannot be solved.

5.1 problems that can be solved

The blockchain judicial depositation platform is actually a supplementary system of the judicial system at present, which can help prove the authenticity and integrity of the evidence. Blockchain technology provides a full-link transparent and monitorable environment for electronic data. Due to signature and timestamp technology, the original data is more realistic, and the original evidence is credible, so that the time of evidence preservation in the notary office is extremely great. The reduction is on, and the efficiency is greatly improved.

However, the integrity of the evidence does not guarantee absolute protection. The current blockchain deposits are the hash values ​​of the original text. In extreme cases, only the hash value is lost and the original text is lost, and the original evidence is incomplete.

Supply chain, traceability, electronic contracts, etc. The blockchain application areas mentioned above, in the transaction process, generate a large amount of data and electronic vouchers. When the parties need to rise to the judicial level to solve the problem, these electronic vouchers are Original evidence. Therefore, other blockchain depository platforms that are not judicially certified will prepare for disputes that may occur in the future. When the dispute occurs, the evidence of the original evidence of the platform can be saved, which can provide a basis for judicial judgment, saving a lot of time and labor cost for traditional evidence collection.

5.2 Unresolved issues

The most important thing is the credibility of the evidence. The credibility needs to be realized through the evidence preservation of the judiciary. The blockchain deposit cannot directly provide the data on the chain as evidence. It is undeniable that one day, this technology will develop more and more mature, and the evidence stored in the depository platform will become more and more credible, but its credibility is not high enough to provide evidence for judicial decisions, because this This means that the blockchain will have the same credibility as the notary office, but the actual blockchain cannot replace the notary office.

The electronic deposit platform implemented by non-blockchain technology has a centralization problem, and the blockchain deposit certificate platform still cannot be solved. Regarding the blockchain deposit certificate platform, there is currently no perfect operation mode to ensure that the entire judicial deposit system is sufficiently decentralized. For the alliance chain nodes, there is an attack problem that is not enough to decentralize. From the perspective of the judicial level, too centralized means that there will be blind spots of evidence, thus reducing the authenticity and reliability of the evidence.

Future development of the deposit certificate market

Blockchain deposit is a trend, but it does not mean that it can subvert or replace anything. At this stage, it is only an auxiliary platform for the judicial system. Evidence is the basis of law. All laws contain three important parts: the premise, the minor premise, and the conclusion. The big premise is evidence, and the small premise is law and regulations. The evidence is not only a simple process of recording facts, but also requires people to explain the evidence, and the judge needs to deduct and summarize the evidence. Therefore, in this process, the factual evidence still needs to be fixed by human work. It is not a simple technical or machine record to solve the problem.

However, a blockchain depositing platform can really reduce the workload in a large amount, and can reduce costs and improve efficiency in many occasions. Although the cost of deploying the platform itself is costly, the cost is relatively small compared to the efficiency of the increase. This technology, which can reduce the cost and improve efficiency, is likely to achieve a new business model in the future and will develop on a large scale. The timing of this large-scale development may be the time when digitalization is widespread. As for when the digitalization can be achieved, it depends on the quality of the data. Only when the data quality is very high can the digitalization be realized.

At this stage, some enterprises have arranged blockchain deposits. As far as the current situation is concerned, the layout blockchains are all influential large enterprises. The key to the large-scale application of blockchain deposits is whether the data can be standardized, and only the enterprises with great influence have obvious advantages in solving this problem. Data standardization means that there is a need to resolve consensus issues among enterprises. Standardization means that the consensus is compatible. Just as in the design of cross-chain schemes, it is also necessary to consider the consensus differences of each chain. Companies have their own standards and want to be leaders in this new field, so they all want their own standards to become industry standards.

Therefore, the legal system needs the blockchain deposit certificate platform to be added as a supplementary system, but the judicial decision at this stage is inseparable from artificial work. The blockchain technology cannot directly complete the judicial judgment. The technology cannot be subverted or replaced. . Moreover, with the continuous development and advancement of data portals, the quality of data continues to increase, and the digitalization will be popularized in the future. At that time, the deposit will become a large-scale application scenario of the blockchain . However, there is not only one company with a high probability of layout in this scenario. Therefore, the enterprises that need to face the scenario of depositing certificates need to be faced with the standards of others, or are compatible with others' standards.

Source: Xita Technology (Public Number)

The original title is "Viewing the Panorama"