Economic Daily: Technology such as blockchain fundamentally changes the path of factor flow and spatial allocation

Economic Daily: Technology such as blockchain fundamentally changes the path of factor flow and spatial allocation

For example, the traditional industrial division of labor between regions will be replaced by the division of functions based on supply chain; the discontinuous and non-contiguous characteristics of industrial spatial layout tend to be obvious; the traditional spatial development pattern based on “core-ventral land” is changing; The architecture will evolve from a scale level to a functional level; and so on. The impact of technological progress on China's regional economic development pattern makes it difficult for some policy tools to function effectively under new technological conditions. An overall assessment of this situation can solve regional development problems more effectively under new technological conditions. Provide reference and basis for further improving the effectiveness of regional policies.

The trend of spatial layout changes in different industries is worthy of attention

A new round of scientific and technological revolution with information communication, cloud computing, intelligent manufacturing, modern transportation, etc. as the main content has an important impact on the cross-regional flow, spatial organization mode and agglomeration form of economic factors such as capital, population and knowledge. Progress has become an important driving force for reshaping the regional economic development pattern. In order to better observe the impact of technological progress on the spatial layout of different industries, we will focus on the technology-intensive or new technologies based on the data of urban-level and above-level cities in China. Analysis of industries with relatively significant impacts. Among them, the trend of spatial layout changes in different industries such as manufacturing, middle and high-end services, and traditional services is worthy of attention.

The trend of manufacturing industry gathering in the surrounding areas of metropolis is more prominent, and regional agglomeration is enhanced. With the application and promotion of technologies such as Internet of Things, intelligent manufacturing, and remote control in the manufacturing industry, important factors have changed in the combination of factors and production methods in the manufacturing industry, and the regional layout characteristics have also changed. The eastern region is still the main gathering area of ​​the manufacturing industry. The proportion of metropolitan manufacturing industry has dropped significantly. The neighboring regions are becoming a new gathering area for manufacturing industries. The central and northeast regions have similar trends, and the manufacturing industry is facing regions. The trend of agglomeration of introspective cities or large-scale central cities is more significant; the changes in the western regions are the most prominent, and the spatial concentration of employment in manufacturing is significantly improved. An important reason for this situation is that under the new technical conditions, the scale of demand for geographic physical space in manufacturing, especially technology-intensive mid- to high-end manufacturing, is reduced, and new technology is replacing labor and industrial productivity. The improvement has also greatly alleviated the pressure of rising cost of land, labor and other factors, and the cost of space agglomeration has declined.

The spatial agglomeration of the high-end service industry has been further enhanced, and the cyclical accumulation effect of the advantageous areas is outstanding. In this industry, the information transmission, computer service and software industry are more prominent, and the concentration of employment space is greatly increased. The cumulative effect of space circulation in the advantageous areas such as Beijing and Shanghai is still outstanding. Chengdu and Chongqing are the gathering of high-end service industries in the western region. center of. This trend is not only related to the reduction of agglomeration costs caused by technological advancement, but also the development of information technology to standardize and modularize specialized services or products, while the mobility is significantly enhanced, and the supply and management of service products can also be improved. Relying on Internet, video, remote monitoring and other technologies in different spaces. The technical thresholds of these service industries are relatively high, and the requirements for the skill level of the practitioners and the quality of the public services in the regions are relatively high. Therefore, the location advantages of the first-time regions are further enhanced, and the siphon effect may be further strengthened.

The financial and transportation services industry has shown a relatively distinct discrete trend in space, and the characteristics of the network integration layout are remarkable. The spatial distribution of the finance and transportation industries is different from other industries. Although ultra-large cities such as Beijing and Shanghai still maintain a high proportion, the growth in other regions has accelerated significantly. The trend of the extension of the layout of the two industries to lower-scale cities has also reflected the deepening of the division of functions within the industry to some extent. Some relatively low-level technologies are shifting from high-cost metropolitan areas to low-cost areas. .

Technological progress has a profound impact on the regional economic development pattern

The impact of the new round of scientific and technological revolution on the regional economy mainly through two paths: one is the technological substitution and the spatial compression effect, that is, the space for economic activities is further expanded by substituting the labor force or reducing the marginal demand scale of the geographical entity space for economic activities. Agglomeration scale effect, which in turn affects the spatial layout of economic activities; second, the virtual interconnected space created by new technologies reshapes the relationship between regions, that is, establishes new spatial connections between different regions through technologies such as the Internet, blockchain, and cloud computing. The path, the production, transaction, management, control and other supply chain functions are connected in real time and conveniently in different spaces, fundamentally changing the path of factor flow and space allocation, and establishing a new function based on the full supply chain between regions. Division of labor contact.

This far-reaching impact is reflected in the following three aspects:

First, the division of functions based on the supply chain has become an important driving force for the reconstruction of the regional economic development pattern. Under the impetus of a new generation of technology, the most obvious change trend of spatial layout in different industries in China is the separation of different functions in space, that is, based on the functions of different links in the supply chain, relying on new technologies to move along the different spatial locations to the most advantageous Regional concentration. The traditional industrial division of labor between regions is replaced by functional division of labor, forming more types of functional areas. As the spatial agglomeration of the high-end service industry becomes the dominant force driving and determining the division of functions in the region, the larger the city, the more diversified its functions, and the smaller the city, the more specialized the function becomes. .

Second, the characteristics of discontinuous and non-contiguous industrial spatial layout tend to be significant. Analysis of the correlation between regional centers such as Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta and surrounding cities can be found that the correlation between manufacturing agglomeration and research and technology, financial insurance, information transmission and other high-end service industries is declining. The correlation between service industry and traditional service industries such as accommodation and catering is also declining, and the correlation between central cities and geographically adjacent areas has also declined to varying degrees. The change in location correlation of different industries reflects that under the new technical conditions, the discontinuous and non-contiguous features of industrial space layout are more prominent, which means that the regional economic development pattern will be from the industrial cluster in the traditional sense to the discontinuous, multi-center. Decentralized networked layout evolution.

Third, the degree of regional integration has further increased. Whether it is between industries or within the same industry, there has been a clear trend of functional separation, that is, in different spaces according to different functions such as manufacturing, consumption, distribution, and research and development, in order to obtain the optimal cost-benefit. At the same time, the new technology will further promote the superposition, integration and reorganization of different functions in different spaces to achieve a larger division of labor and agglomeration effects. Driven by this trend, the urban system traditionally formed according to the scale of the scale will gradually evolve into a functional structure with the “functional level” as the function of the region reorganizes. The degree of integration has also increased.

Build a policy system that matches technological advances

The impact of the new generation of technological advances on the regional economy is multi-layered and systematic, which not only helps to improve the spatial allocation efficiency of resource elements, but also contains different risks. This requires a deeper understanding and understanding of the internal mechanisms and policy needs of new technologies affecting the regional economy, the establishment of a regional policy system that matches technological progress, and more effective use of technological advancement to promote the high-quality development of regional economies.

The first is to implement regional-oriented regional policies to create development conditions that match the new generation of technologies for different regions. For different regions, formulate and implement regionally oriented policies that emphasize regional differences and specificities, and guide different types of resource elements to be allocated to the regions with the most comparative advantages and economies of scale, creating more for different types and regions with different levels of development. Equal development opportunities and more appropriate development conditions. At the same time, it should be noted that the siphon effect of the first-time region may be further enhanced with the advancement of new technologies. It is necessary to change the conditions of agglomeration factors in different regions through different and policy-oriented policy supply at the national level. Both can use technological advancement to promote the development of the region. For example, implementing different talent policies for different development needs of different regions, developing labor skills training that matches new technologies, and making a lean layout of public service facilities resources.

The second is to speed up the improvement of relevant fiscal and taxation policies and interest balance mechanisms, and actively and effectively respond to the deepening of regional functional division of labor. It should be noted that the process of deepening the division of functions is also a process of re-adjustment of interests, which may bring new problems to regional economic development. To solve these problems, it is necessary to speed up the establishment of fiscal and taxation policies and interest balance mechanisms that are compatible with the regional functional division of labor. For example, speed up the improvement of the local tax system based on housing or permanent residents; moderately improve the central government's ability to balance the fiscal capacity of different regions; establish regional interest funds pools and inter-regional horizontal fiscal transfer payments as the main interests at the regional level. Balance mechanism; and so on.

The third is to adapt to the trend of factor flow under the conditions of new technology and promote the systemic nature of regional policy tools. From the changes that have already occurred in the industrial layout, we can initially judge that under the new technical conditions, the middle and low skill level of the labor force will be affected by factors such as the technological advancement substitution effect and the rising cost of living in the middle and high-end industrial clusters. Slowdown; driven by low-cost, short-term market benefits, the networked layout of capital will accelerate; the diffusion of technology and knowledge elements depends more on the functional connections within the virtual space. It should be noted that the flow trends of different factors are interrelated rather than independent, and it is necessary to construct a combination of policy tools that fits with the overall regional and systemic thinking. For example, the spatial units of different policy tools will be gradually transformed from administrative districts to functional districts; a more integrated spatial planning system will be established, and the coordination and coordination of development paths and functional orientations in different regions will be strengthened; and more effective arrangements will be established between different regions. Radiation and receiving channels, guiding the multi-directional flow of resource elements; and so on.

Source: Economic Daily