Baidu Super Chain: With 140+ patents, plans to open source cross-chain technology in 2020

On July 27th, the first salon of Baidu Super Chain Academy opened in Beijing. Baidu Super Chain senior R&D engineers and product managers shared the technology, application and Baas.

In addition, the Baidu Super Chain team also revealed the next plan, plans to open source super node technology, open source XuperData in the first half of 2020, to achieve cross-chain, and support federal learning. The Baidu Super Chain team told Babbitt: "The cross-chain of XuperChain is similar to Cosmos and Polkadot."


What kind of dry goods did the salon tailored for the developer say? Take a look. The Babbitt reporters communicated with the Super Chain team on the spot and asked them questions about the Libra competition and the pluggable consensus mechanism.

Technical articles: With 140+ patents, what are the advantages of the super chain?

According to Zheng Qi, a senior research and development engineer, XuperChain has four technical advantages:

First, technology can be controlled independently. As a self-developed blockchain technology, XuperChain has 140+ technology patents, which is more suitable for commercial application scenarios in China. Second, it is simple and easy to use. Support network, chain, smart contract fully online deployment, management and use, provide rich management and operation functions and a variety of blockchain SDK, development guide, greatly reduce the use threshold, easily supervise multiple blockchain networks; Third, excellent performance. Self-developed high-performance virtual machine, making resource consumption measurable, original in-chain parallel technology, can execute and verify contracts in parallel, and finally achieve 80,000 TPS transactions per second per chain, and the overall network can reach 200,000 TPS; Fourth, The infrastructure is resilient. Support DPOS, authorization consensus, PBFT three hot plug consensus mechanisms, support a variety of smart contract development languages, including Go, C + +, Solidity.

The Baidu Super Chain is a multi-chain architecture. It consists of four layers from the bottom up, which are the common component layer, the core layer, the API layer and the application layer. The common component layer is a module shared by all chains, mainly including a Crypto module, a storage module, and a P2P network module. The Core layer is the main module inside the single chain, mainly including the transaction engine, the consensus module and the ledger module. The API layer is a supported calling method and currently supports the Grpc protocol and the Http protocol. The top layer is the application layer, which supports users through SDKs and lightweight clients.

Figure 1 XuperChain architecture diagram

XuperChain has opened up four core patent technologies, namely, intra-chain parallel technology, pluggable consensus mechanism, account authority system, and integrated smart contract.

Intra-chain parallel technology

Supports implicit DAG construction of contract data and parallel processing of the largest granularity of contracts, making full use of multi-core and multi-machine computing resources. To describe the read and write set, XuperChain defines a new transaction model called XuperModel. This model is an evolution of the Bitcoin UTXO model. In Bitcoin's UTXO model, each transaction needs to reference the output of an earlier transaction in the input field to prove the source of funding. Similarly, in the XuperModel, the data read by each transaction needs to reference the data written by the earlier transaction. In the XuperModel, the input to the transaction represents the data source that was read during the execution of the smart contract, ie the output from which transactions the data came from. The output of the transaction represents the data that the transaction writes to the state database, and this data is referenced by subsequent contract calls.

Figure 3 XuperModel

Pluggable consensus mechanism

Different application scenarios have different requirements for consensus. In order to support different businesses to choose different consensus according to their characteristics, Baidu Super Chain has designed a pluggable consensus mechanism.

The Baidu Super Chain Consensus Module consists of three layers: the lowest level is the common components that the consensus module relies on, including Consensus Interface, Chained-BFT, atomic clock, etc. The middle layer is a consensus-based public interface. Currently, the main support and upcoming support are TDPoS. , POW, XpoS, etc.; the top layer consists of pluggable consensus, including Step Consensus and Pluggable Consensus, responsible for the maintenance chain's consensus upgrade history from creation to current height.

Figure 4 Consensus Module

Account authority system

Support for multi-AK controlled contract accounts. With a more flexible asset management approach, you can have multiple private key holding accounts and a flexible rights management model. The support account manages the smart contract, the smart contract needs to be deployed inside a specific account, and the account can set the rights management model of the contract method.

Figure 5 permission system

Support multiple permission models, including weight threshold model, AK set model, CA control model, community governance model. The figure below is a specific use case for the weight threshold model.

Superchain accounts are nested. The weight threshold model is that its owner's signature will have a weight, and the account will set a minimum threshold that is checked by its authority. When the signature threshold of multiple owners is greater than the minimum threshold required by the account, the permission check passes. . Assuming that Account A requires an owner signature of >= 0.4, the permission check passes. Account B requires an owner signature of >= 0.6, and the permission verification is passed. Then the three signature combinations on the right, the second and third signature combinations can be verified by the authority of the account A, and the first signature combination cannot be verified by the authority of the account A.

Integrated smart contract

Features multi-language architecture, smart contract and core architecture separation, contract lifecycle management, pre-execution. The development of Baidu's super-chain smart contract focuses on security and speed. In the contract design, it is mainly used for access by XuperBridge. XuperBridge is a bridge for secure calls across the contract, extending virtual machines, languages, and up-to-back services.

Figure 6 Integrated Smart Contract

Application articles: empowerment traceability and justice, blockchain is not alone

In this salon, Baidu Super Chain Senior Product Manager Liang Zi introduced the application case based on XuperChain, which is blockchain traceability solution and judicial electronic evidence platform.

Traceability application case

The Baidu Super Chain team believes that “although the blockchain has brought new possibilities to solve the pain points of the traceability industry, the whole solution is still in the development stage. Unlike the high-profile subversiveness of the financial industry, the blockchain is the industry belt. More is the improvement of innovation, enhancing the credibility of traceability information."

The Baidu Super Chain team introduced that their solutions have the following characteristics:

1. Blockchain is not a single fight, blockchain + AI + IOT equipment (chip) is the trace source top. 2. Blockchain traceability has strong marketing value, low-cost access, and high-volume marketing can help enterprises maximize the value of blockchain traceability. 3. The construction of the blockchain judicial system realizes the real-time deposit of traceability data and enhances the credibility of data.

Figure 7 traceability

Take the combination of traceability and furniture industry as an example: First, based on blockchain record characteristics, production time, location, people, batch number and other data information, can not be falsified, permanently saved. The traceability data of the core link will be transmitted synchronously to the cooperative court. Secondly, the introduction of AI technology to identify the wood grain on the furniture to ensure the consistency of data between the source and the chain. Finally, anti-counterfeit chips will be implanted in the furniture to increase the difficulty of fraud. Currently, the project is in the process of landing.

Judicial application case

In the traditional way, there are different degrees of pain points in the entire judicial process of depositing, collecting evidence, demonstrating, giving evidence and identifying the electronic data. Based on blockchain technology, Baidu Super Chain provides a one-stop electronic data security solution that integrates electronic data forensics, deposit, certificate and legal assistance. It records the whole process of electronic signing, such as user authentication, data creation, storage and transmission. To ensure the privacy and security of the data, the joint authority notary office carries out the file hash value and supports one-click certificate. The data deposit service based on blockchain technology gives the judicial evidence of electronic data, making electronic data a court evidence, reducing the cost of safeguarding rights and improving judicial efficiency.

Figure 8 Justice

Taking intellectual property as an example, the platform supports users/media platforms/copyright parties, uploads copyright registration information and infringement forensics information to the blockchain network, and introduces the authentication and copyright bureau as the supervisory node of the depository platform to ensure that it can be issued at any time. A nationally-certified notarized certificate of judicial effect, and as evidence of infringement that the court can accept in the event of infringement. At the same time, it cooperated with Beijing and Guangzhou Internet Courts to create a link model of “blockchain+intellectual property+judicial data deposit”. At present, an intellectual property case based on the Baidu blockchain deposit certificate platform has completed the court evidence review.

Figure 9 Copyright

Super Chain: What is the cross-chain? How do you see Libra?

In the Q&A session of the venue, Babbitt communicated with the Baidu Super Chain team.

Babbitt: What is the cross-chain of open source projects planned for 2020? Is there a real cross-chain demand? Should cross-chain projects like cosmos and polkadot be different?

Baidu Blockchain Lab: In the 2020 cross-chain open source project, the cross-chain interaction of any type of data between the parallel chains of XuperChain is realized mainly through the XuperChain main chain. The actual cross-chain requirements have been generated in the current business scenario. As more and more users are present, there is a real need for data connectivity between different chains.

The cross-chain of XuperChain is similar to that of Cosmos and polkadot. XuperChain allows different consensus between different parallel chains. Of course, we also provide a way to share security between parallel chains and main chains, and attach great importance to data privacy protection between links. Babbitt: Does your development language support consider move? Have you considered cooperation and competition with Libra? For example, will this stable currency be introduced into the super chain, or a stable currency will be issued on its own chain?

Baidu Blockchain Lab: Regarding the move language, its biggest feature is the abstraction of resources. Baidu XuperChain is designed to support resource-oriented contract SDKs, and the security of resources can be guaranteed from the framework level. As for whether or not to support the move language, it is currently not planned. We will pay close attention to Libra's progress and must do what is allowed by law and policy.

Babbitt: The pluggable feature of the superchain can be configured by the user to configure the consensus mechanism. If there is a project to continue the superchain configuration of the pow mechanism, and the setting of the currency, what is your attitude towards this?

Baidu Blockchain Lab: As a domestic open source technology, we follow the laws and policies, and we must cooperate with supervision if necessary. It is also hoped that all applications based on open source blockchain technology will be covered by law.