What is the beacon chain in Ethereum 2.0?

Author | Yuxing

Produced|Baihua blockchain (ID: hellobtc)
Ethereum 2.0 is intended to solve the consensus and scalability problems of Ethereum. A new concept based on consensus is a Beacon Chain, and based on the scalability problem is Shard Chains. Today, Dabai and everyone's science are about what the beacon chain and the beacon chain have.
01 What is the beacon chain?
The beacon chain, English name is Beacon Chain, Beacon, meaning the lighthouse, signal buoy. It is actually the core of the Ethereum 2.0 system.
The beacon chain is a brand new proof of interest (PoS) blockchain , which is to solve the consensus problem, and the purpose of the Shard Chains is to solve the scalability problem of Ethereum.
The reason why the fragmentation chain can solve the performance problem is that it is equivalent to processing transactions through multiple pieces of technology, which improves the efficiency and performance of the system. The following figure shows the structure diagram of the beacon chain and the fragment chain, where the beacon chain is at The coordination layer is responsible for coordination and management, while the fragmentation chain is at the data layer and is responsible for the work of the data part.
In the figure we can see why we need a beacon chain? The beacon chain is like a core spine that supports and links the various chain links. In fact, the beacon chain is the core of the life of the entire Ethereum 2.0 system, responsible for all participants in the command coordination system. So what can it do?
What can the beacon chain do?
First, this chain is a Proof of Entitlement (PoS) blockchain that allows the verifier to participate in the pledge system and replace the miner's role as the chain builder. That is to say, the beacon chain manages the list of verifiers and the fragment verifier tasks.
How can I become a verifier of the beacon chain?
First you need to send a deposit (32 Ethereum) to a contract on the current Ethereum main chain, and after a series of audit checks, you will receive an electronic receipt (event in the Ethereum Smart Contract), this The receipt is equivalent to a vip card. With this card, you have the qualification to become a verifier. If you are "active", you may be selected as a block proposer.
Once you become a certifier, the beacon chain will schedule the task for you .
It will randomly assign you to one or two shards for verification. We know that under the workload proof mechanism, that is, in our current Ethereum main chain, the miners generate the next block by mining, but under the equity proof mechanism, there is no mining, and the next block is produced by The verifiers chose it. This choice is random, not a verifier can control, which also reflects the characteristics of decentralization.
If you are not very "active" and the beacon chain assigns you to the shard, you will need to select a new block with the other certifiers of the shard.
The block proponent of the shard then collects the transaction for the shard and incorporates the transaction into the block that was just selected by the certifier, although since you are not the creator of the block, there is no The power to include the transaction in the new block, but as a verifier you can verify that the block proposer is doing the right thing in the process.
If you do well, what you do as a verifier will be rewarded. Conversely, if you break the rules, you will be punished. The penalty is to deduct a portion of your mortgaged 32 ETH, when the mortgage is less than 16 ethers. After the currency, the beacon chain will remove you from the certifier list.
If one day you don't want to be a certifier, your mortgage of the Ethereum plus the reward you get and the amount of the Ether you deducted for the penalty will not return to your previous Ethereum chain, but will be saved. Into a certain piece chain.
In addition to managing the verifier, the beacon chain also needs to store some authentication (Attestation).
We know that the current Ethereum blockchain stores data information about our usual asset transfer transactions, but the beacon chain is different from the current Ethereum main chain, which stores a series of calculated strings.
The generation of this string is based on a hash operation in the computer. It is like the way you put the beans into the soymilk in your life. You can't judge the shape and size of the beans according to the obtained soymilk. And if you add a bean, the resulting soymilk will change a lot. You can't determine which particle in your soy milk is your bean. This soymilk is like a hash algorithm , you can't pass the hash. The result is to derive what it was like before the hash, and as long as the data before the hash changes a bit, the result after the hash will change a lot.
In the beacon chain, the verifier verifies and signs the transaction, such as a transfer transaction, and then hashes it into a string and stores the string in the beacon chain. At this point, the string represents a The benefit of trading data is that you don't have to delve into which segment of the transaction.
Once the state in the shard changes (such as a slight change in the balance of an account), the verifier will report the change to the beacon chain. Therefore, the change of the real-time tracker fragment of the beacon chain also establishes a connection and communication between the fragments.
03 Summary
In general, the beacon chain, like a signal light, directs the various behaviors of the system and stores a large amount of authentication data. However, this kind of command is decentralized. For example, the voter's voting behavior is determined by the verifier itself, and the beacon chain cannot be controlled. Finally, the beacon chain and the segmentation chain also involve many technical difficulties, and the Ethereum team is also moving forward.
What do the friends think of the beacon chain? Welcome to share your opinion in the message area!
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