Visual China ignites copyright dispute: infringement is difficult to cure, blockchain technology is to be solved

Today, Visual China was besieged, and the black hole photo triggered a series of images to question the copyright. After the Communist Youth League Central Committee, Suning Ali Baidu and other well-known companies have been filming and @视觉中国影像.

Pictures are from the network screenshot

The issue of copyright has always been a difficult bone, and infringements have occurred frequently and never stopped. In January of this year, the "Gan Chai Inferior Fire" washing incident also swept the whole network, copyright protection is a protracted war.

Behind the incident, problems such as the difficulty of confirming rights, the difficulty of safeguarding rights, and the uneven distribution of income have long been exposed in the copyright field.

The new reporter Wang Heyan questioned the "washing manuscript" of "Gan Chai Inferior Fire", which even caused the original content to resonate.

The blockchain was once thought to solve this problem.

However, after citing a number of “blockchain+content copyright” projects in the industry, it was found that the problem of “Ganchai inferior fire” is that the content is difficult to determine, and it is never just a technical issue.

"Like the hamster, it will never be clean."

The copyright struggle has a long history. According to historical records, the Southern Song government more than 700 years ago not only enacted regulations to combat piracy, but also established industry associations to play a binding and supervisory role.

Even so, the famous philosopher Zhu Xi was still pleaded with the county magistrate to pursue his version because of the piracy of the book.

Li Yu, a Qing Dynasty dramatist known as the "Oriental Shakespeare" and an anti-piracy fighter, hated the pirates. "I am ploughing, how can I be swearing?"

What makes the creators even more headache is that pirates not only pirate, but also cut corners in order to reduce costs .

Lu Xun’s letter to his friend Cao Jinghua said that the "Iron Flow" edited by him was reprinted in Peiping, but "bad paper typo, made a mess."

Piracy is so, the history of plagiarism is much earlier than this, and even more so.

Today, the head of the original "Learn with Gong Linna Singing" head is plagued by piracy. He said that his own courses are often infringed, and the courses of 99 yuan and 199 yuan are illegally downloaded to 9.9 yuan. Low-priced bulk sales, the infringer used the trumpet, can not be traced. "Reporting one after another, like a hamster, will never be clean . "

Nothing is a microcosm of the original content group. Luo Zhenyu, the founder of Luo Jizhi, also spoke in the circle of friends.

Image from Luo Zhenyu's circle of friends

Piracy and anti-piracy, how do we get out of the game?

Blockchain makes copyright "evidence"

They are all Chinese characters. Why do you say this is yours, not mine?

The seemingly sloppy saying reflects the “definite power” of protecting originality.

In the past, the only way for creators to determine their rights was to register with the National Copyright Administration. The normal process would take several months. Even if it was expedited, it would take 30 working days, which would be time-consuming and laborious, and would require a certain amount of text.

Now, we can use blockchain technology to solve this problem and have a legal effect.

Hao Hao, the person in charge of the paper copyright technology business, showed the blockchain copyright deposit platform to the zinc link, including copyright deposit certificate, copyright tracking, and infringement deposit. The following is a schematic diagram of the process of copyright deposit and infringement.

Image from Paper Technology

After the zinc link is used for depositing the certificate, it receives a copyright certificate of the platform, which records the name of the work, the author's name, the winding time, and the hash value on the chain.

Zinc link trial screenshot

However, the zinc link is found in use, the blockchain can only ensure the credibility of the copyright deposit process, and can not guarantee the credibility of the information before the link , the copyright of the above manuscript should actually be owned by the zinc link. If someone else has previously registered, and the actual owner of the copyright cannot produce valid evidence, it is easy to cause loss of rights of the copyright owner.

Chen Enfu, general manager of the security network division, said that Baoquan.com relies on blockchain technology to reduce the cost of copyright deposits. It allows creators to achieve output and own, taking pictures as an example, an average of 0.5 yuan, "very soon, creators You can save the certificate freely on the security network . "

There are not many schemes for applying blockchain to content authentication. In addition to the paper-based technology mentioned above, there are Baidu totem, only chain, capital copyright, security network, etc., which are not very different in architecture.

The security network blockchain copyright deposit and evidence collection has been used in copyright dispute cases.

In 2017, Hangzhou Huatai Yi Media Culture Media Co., Ltd. filed a lawsuit against the Hangzhou Internet Court. Shenzhen Daotong Technology Development Co., Ltd. reprinted its copyrighted works without permission. In June 2018, the first instance was judged to have infringed the defendant.

This is the first blockchain deposit certificate in China.

In addition, in September 2018, the Supreme People's Court Regulations on Certain Issues in Internet Court Trial Cases recognized the legal effect of blockchain deposits:

“Electronic data submitted by the parties can prove their authenticity through electronic signature, trusted time stamp, hash value verification, blockchain and other evidence collection, fixed and tamper-proof technical means or through electronic forensic evidence platform certification. The Internet court should confirm."

At present, blockchain deposit has become one of the popular methods of obtaining evidence in three Internet courts in Beijing, Hangzhou and Guangzhou.

Chen Enfu believes that this is also a certain degree of burden reduction for the courts . The blockchain makes the copyright "evidence" and many dispute cases can be settled outside the court.

Since there are solutions, landing cases, and legal recognition, what is the difficulty in determining the blockchain content?

Blockchain can't cure the manuscript

In the copyright link, the difficulty is infringement monitoring.

Hao Hao told Zinc Link that "Artificial Intelligence + Big Data" can solve this problem. According to the algorithm rules, the reciprocal rate is detected by crawler comparison, and the infringement is exceeded when the set value is exceeded.

Chen Enfu believes that the technology of picture comparison is very mature, and text infringement can also be identified by crawlers.

But things are not as simple as imagined.

As we all know, “checking the weight” is an evaluation link set by the academic community to avoid plagiarism. It uses the powerful retrieval ability of the database to identify whether there is plagiarism.

The Science Citation Index, one of the three citation databases, was founded by the American Institute of Scientific Information as early as 1961, but to this day, "plagiarism" is still difficult to eradicate.

Before submitting a paper, many students will first check the papers themselves. There are all kinds of free check tools on the Internet. Taobao also has low-cost check services. If the paper is repeated, you can get away with it by changing your expression. This is often referred to as "washing."

Image from Taobao

It can be seen that the difficulty is not in technology, the blockchain can't cure the manuscript, and the complicated evaluation system behind it is difficult to establish.

In December 2018, the WeChat public platform announced the trial operation of the “Purchase Complaints Collegiate Mechanism”. The collegial panel consisted of invited individual creators with no plagiarism violation records, equivalent to a small court of public.

After "Gan Chai inferior fire", Yang Shu, the founder of "Mountain Launch Conference" and his team tried to establish a washing and discriminating mechanism, and claimed that according to the minimum standard, the identification price of "Gan Chai Inferior Fire" was 2,000 yuan.

Xuan Hongliang, executive deputy secretary-general of the Capital Copyright and Copyright Industry Alliance and director of the Copyright Research Institute of the National Cultural Industry Research Center of Tsinghua University, believes that copyright monitoring is not complicated. It is difficult to understand whether “cleaning” constitutes copyright infringement. There are professional institutions for identification.

The cost of cleaning the appraisal is still too high.

Dilemma: creators do not want to try

Xuan Hongquan is the promoter of the copyright industry public chain.

He told Zinc Links that many creators tend to have weak copyright awareness, and even if they have a ready-made platform, they are not willing to try. "There is no charge for copyright registration on the chain, why don't you?"

Xuan Hongquan said that the process of using the blockchain to carry out copyright deposits is no different from the process of registering in the copyright office, but the efficiency is greatly improved, and the blockchain's "not tamperable" feature makes the deposit credibility higher.

"The blockchain can't prevent infringement, but it can prevent it and improve efficiency and credibility. Isn't that enough?"

He added that the content of copyright deposits, on the one hand, can play a deterrent role by publishing copyright notices. On the other hand, because the information is on the chain, it is easier to identify when it is infringed, and the claim is more evidence-based. according to.

The strange texts on the chain are "rewarded"

After the confirmation of rights, it is the distribution of content, safeguarding the benefits that the original creator deserves.

The poet Tao potential "migration" written, "the strange texts are appreciated, the doubts and the analysis." It means that good articles must be appreciated by everyone, and this kind of thinking has always influenced the people. To this day, most people still feel that original content should be free.

However, this is obviously unfair to the creators.

At present, the source of the creators' income is one that is paid by traditional media, such as newspapers, magazines, etc. The other is that the distribution platform gives certain rewards based on the content data, such as the headline number, the hundred family number, and so on.

However, the original content is a long-chain industry, and the creators can't control the content of the content in the distribution and consumption, let alone the benefits that are derived from these links.

The flower-free course products have been plagiarized many times, but in the face of high security costs, they can only be blamed.

"Piracy is better than you know the market, you say desperate and desperate." The flowers are very helpless and say to the zinc link that they have no original ability, but they can know for the first time which platforms are new, which are good, and who are pirated. The class is profitable.

In the "Gan Chai bad fire" incident, Caixin also faced the same problem.

Many viewpoints believe that Caixin's pay wall has set a high barrier, which is not conducive to the spread of news facts. Senior media person Fang Kecheng proposed a solution in his public journal “News Lab”. He may wish to learn from the e-commerce drainage model and promote the distribution of paid content.

In fact, content e-commerce is already a more common business model. Nowadays, some people use the blockchain to refine the incentives in the distribution chain. The content public chain hydrogen-oxygen community is doing this.

The person in charge, Cao Juntao, told Zinc Link to use the Token incentive mechanism to integrate multiple participants into the ecology and form a closed loop. Users are both consumers and content investors, and they have the motivation to promote content. At the same time, the data generated by their actions can also be used as an asset payment granting platform to obtain revenue. In addition, due to the traceable nature of blockchains, creators can learn where content is going, and the platforms within the ecosystem are traffic matrices and share traffic pools.

Paper expensive technology is also forming a coalition chain with joint government agencies, content platforms, universities, etc. to create trusted nodes, so that the entire link is trusted and witnessed at all nodes.

However, this model is still a long way from the real landing. Whether it is a public chain or a coalition chain, its ecology has not yet been established. In addition to the immature underlying technology of the blockchain, another factor is the lack of awareness in the market.

The realization path of the hydrogen-oxygen community is to cultivate user cognition through the content platform “Tao Tao” to start the traffic first.

Baoquan.com provides storage services for creators through low-cost or even free, and provides integrated services for monitoring, online forensics, and rights protection. It first establishes a group of creators resources and establishes a content distribution public chain ecology.

In addition, after the content is confirmed, the imaginable commercial space includes copyright transactions, copyright securitization, and copyright pledge financing.

Copyright protection is a protracted war.

According to the statistics of the National Copyright Administration, in 2017, various types of intellectual property cases handled by the national courts increased substantially, with a total of 237,242 new cases received and 225,678 cases (including old deposits) concluded, up 33.5% and 31.43% respectively from 2016.

Even so, copyright disputes continue to increase. This is the case with today’s headlines and other “news porters”.

Blockchain technology came into being. The "copyright + blockchain" is certainly conducive to solving the long-standing problem of determining the power, but it is also because the content evaluation is difficult. The current technology is not much better than the "checking" tool on the market. .

In addition, the “content revenue + blockchain” is more like a cake that moves the platform. It is hard to imagine that it is difficult to change the pricing power and bargaining power from the platform to the creator itself .

However, from another perspective, a small step in the blockchain practitioners today may be a big step in the history of copyright protection struggles.

Text: Chen Haining

Editor: Deng Long