For a long time, decentralization is the most mentioned feature of the blockchain. In addition to decentralization, the blockchain has a feature that is open and less mentioned, but it is also very important, even Said openness is one of the guarantees of decentralized features.
When people mention the openness of the blockchain, there are various sayings. Some people say that the blockchain economy is the open source economy. Some people say that the blockchain is the greatest one. It is a license-free innovation agreement. The most valuable part of the blockchain is open finance. Others say that the blockchain has changed the traditional corporate structure. It has created a new evidence-based economic system in which traditional The closed company has become an open form of evidence, making it possible for large-scale human collaboration.
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It sounds very powerful, but in fact it is still very difficult to understand, so I put together these topics related to "openness" and simply sort out them.
At present, the openness of the blockchain is mainly reflected in the following aspects: the first is the openness of the accounts, that is, all historical transaction records are open to the public; the second is the openness of the organizational structure, all holding Token It can be called the currency east; the third is the openness of ecology.
Second, the openness of the accounts
The blockchain differs from the traditional database in that the blockchain is distributedly booked, and all historical records are made public, and everyone can access the relevant records and verify them, which also gives birth to a similar data browsing. Business opportunities related to data analysis.
The account book is also evolving. In the history, the book has been in existence for many years. At the beginning, everyone remembered the running account. Later, the business was developed. After the company, it began to have more complicated accounting methods. .
At the beginning of the company's small scale, such as individual companies or partnerships, then the book is the company's most intimate things, only the highest management and business owners can see, but in the era of listed companies, the company's Financial reports are publicly available and subject to third party audits.
Because the company at this time is not unique to a certain individual, but is owned by the public, all stakeholders need to know the financial information of the company, so the account needs to be disclosed. It can be expected that with the increasing degree of large-scale collaboration, the degree of disclosure of the books will become a trend in the future .
If the trust generated by the traditional internal accounting + external auditing model is enough to support a capitalist commercial civilization, then if the distributed accounting of the blockchain is really popular, the accounts are completely open and cannot be falsified. So many people who don't know each other and supervise each other are responsible for billing you. The trust generated by the accounts at this time is deeper.
Blockchain distributed accounting as a subversive accounting method, combined with the account system reform, coupled with the TOKEN economy developed on the basis of this completely credible, can play a paradigm revolution on the commercial ecological energy. In the end, together, a new great commercial civilization will be born.
Third, the openness of organizational structure
From the historical experience, the development of each company system corresponds to the opening of the company's organizational structure, which is corresponding to the increase in the number of stakeholders.
For example, in the first self-employed households, the shareholders are one person, the management rights and the income rights are concentrated on one person; later, the partnership enterprises, for example, 10 individual partnerships, the management rights begin to be complicated, the income rights begin to be decentralized, and the income is 10 Personal sharing; Later, when there are limited liability companies and joint-stock companies, the management rights are further complicated, and the agent who has power is the shareholders who delegate the power to the management, but the proceeds are still shared by all shareholders. At this time, the number of shareholders can reach 200. People, the income is also shared by these 200 people; then, after the emergence of listed companies, management rights are further complicated, CEO, board of directors, shareholders meeting, you sometimes have difficulty figuring out who the company is, but the number of shareholders is Undoubtedly rising, thousands of companies, even 100,000 shareholders of companies are also very common.
What is the trend behind this? More and more ordinary people can be separated from the company's management and directly participate in the company's income distribution.
If it is said that the company's stakeholders have been extended to tens of thousands of words through the form of stocks, then the company's stakeholders can be expanded by an order of magnitude on the basis of Token or currency.
And quantitative change can cause qualitative changes. When the number of IPO shareholders of the company exceeds 200, we call this company a listed company. It is very different from non-listed companies, such as the regular reporting system, such as the management of the Securities and Futures Commission, such as the responsibility to the public. When company stakeholders continue to rise by an order of magnitude at the level of listed companies, there are more interesting things happening. At this time, the company is not just a listed company, but the entire underlying economic logic begins to be open, or someone Call it the open source economy.
This open source refers to the company's code open source on the one hand, and on the other hand, the company's producers, consumers, investors, suppliers and other stakeholders are multi-integrated.
Fourth, the openness of ecology
Open accounts and open organizational structures are the bottom-level foundations, and the ultimate goal is to build an open ecosystem. In this ecology, the transfer of value is becoming easier, the cost is getting lower and lower, and the efficiency is getting higher and higher. Just like the dissemination of information society information, the cost is getting lower and lower, and the efficiency is getting higher and higher.
Take Ethereum as an example. After the development of Ethereum, there were thousands of ERC20 tokens developed based on Ethereum. The underlying agreements of these tokens are the same, and the transfer speed between them is very fast. Based on ERC20. The more tokens, the stronger the network effect of Ethereum, and the ecology of Ethereum will become more and more complete and more complete.
At the same time, DAPP and applications based on the Ethereum public chain will gradually increase, which will eventually form a large operating system, making the value transfer between Token more efficient.
Of course, even today, the battle for the public chain is far from over, the rise of EOS and other public chains, the rise of cross-chains, and the problems that Ethereum itself faces, such as the transformation of consensus mechanisms, the immaturity of fragmentation technology, etc. Such problems have caused the public chain to face fierce competition for a long time in the future, and the ecological construction based on the public chain will take longer to achieve.
Although the winner is uncertain and the implementation time is not true, but this trend is certain, the reduction of asset transaction costs is like a whirlpool, attracting a large number of asset blockchains, slowly in the block. A huge value ecology is formed on the chain . The blockchain will certainly form a large value-shifting operating system in the future. In this operating system is open source, everyone can contribute and no license is required. As Silicon Valley Wang Chuan said: "The blockchain is an open source business system, and its most essential part is that it can accept innovation without permission."
The essence of the blockchain is that innovation does not require approval and planning. The so-called Permissionless Innovation. On an open system, the only way to do it is to reward it. In the long run, open and compatible cheap systems will eventually marginalize the system that is expensive and incompatible.
When this open source ecosystem is formed, unlicensed innovation is indeed its greatest advantage. In the traditional corporate field, innovation is driven from the top down. Someone has to propose, some people do the project, some approve, some donate, some team, and then the project starts. The bigger the company, the more difficult it is to innovate, so often large companies are overtaken by other small companies and cause big companies to die suddenly.
But in the area of blockchain, innovation does not require any permission. The code of the project is open source, you can independently develop new products, new features, let the market choose, you can also submit to the public nature foundation, in extreme cases, you can even fork the project, then add The function you want. In general, excellent innovations will be recognized by the market in a timely manner, and ultimately everything will be chosen by the market.
Of course, the fork is only limited to the public chain, because generally only the public chain project is open source. On the basis of open source, everyone will contribute to the project to build the ecology. In the end, the ecology is getting bigger and bigger, and the network effect is getting stronger. Those private chains, such as Morgan's Morgancoin, are more likely to improve efficiency than a subversive appearance, not to mention blockchain projects that have applied for many, many patents. It can help it grow in the Internet age, but in the blockchain era it must hinder its expansion and hinder its ecological expansion.
V. Others (open finance, open source business)
In addition to the "open book", "open organization" and "open ecology" mentioned above, there are many other sayings, such as "open finance" by Meng Yan, all in the blockchain. The new business opportunities brought about by internal openness are actually similar in nature. Teacher Meng Yan is such an open finance:
Although the CIS economy was first proposed in China, but I personally it is only a means, not an end, what is the purpose? The aim is to open up finance. I didn't understand this concept before, and I didn't touch it until a few months ago. We believe that open finance is the real goal, and the pass-through economy is only the path. If someone proves to me that there is another way to better achieve open finance, I can throw away the word of the pass-through economy in minutes. However, at present, the incentive system is indispensable for open finance, so the pass-through economy is also inseparable.
There are three things to do in order to engage in open finance. First, there needs to be an open financial infrastructure, mainly a technology infrastructure. Then there is an open pass incentive model, and the third is open source regulation. The open financial infrastructure is mainly the technical infrastructure, which can be understood as hardware; and the open-based economic model can be understood as software, which is the incentive system; then, open-source supervision belongs to third parties, government or community, related to governance, These three things are indispensable to me. Our main direction is the design of the certification model. In addition to the concept of "open finance", there are "open source business" and "programmable business". Although these noun concepts are different, they are similar in nature, and the essence is the openness of the blockchain.
According to Mr. Wang Chuan from Silicon Valley, in 2000, there was a company called Sun Microsystem, which had a market value of more than $100 billion. They have their own Sparc processor and Solaris UNIX operating system, and they have been The mainstream development platform for many engineers. But today, many people have never heard of this name because it has been completely eliminated by the open source software Linux based on the open x86 processor. In September 2017, the last batch of Solaris development team members were fired.
Today, all Android software is developed based on the Linux kernel.
An open source business system, sooner or later, can defeat those closed business systems. Today, our Internet industry has a lot of giants. If these giants continue to be so closed, the future is likely to be defeated by the blockchain centered on open source business and open source economy, just like Unix and Windows.
The blockchain has an open and non-tamperable account book. The pass-through economy makes the blockchain project open to the organization. When most of the assets are gradually passed through, when the public chain develops slowly, the cross-chain technology After slowly maturing, the blockchain will form a huge, open value transfer network, which will greatly reduce the cost of value transmission and greatly improve the efficiency, thus prompting us to truly enter the value Internet era.