Getting started with blockchain | Ethereum 2.0 terminology at a glance

With the release of Ethereum 2.0 coming, this is the first of many articles about it, and we hope that more relevant articles will be published later.

Serinity 2.0 is an important update that everyone has been waiting for for a long time, and developers are working hard on it, including some major upgrades in terms of scalability and a shift from proof of work (PoW) to equity. Proof (PoS) mechanism. An important milestone at present is the specification freeze developed in the first phase. We have invested a lot of energy in research and development, and now our efforts are beginning to bear fruit. When I first studied Serenity (Ethereum 2.0), the first thing that puzzled me was a lot of new terminology. What exactly is Crosslink? Is Slot a block? (Spread! No! It is not) Is Attestor the same as validator?

Therefore, we have listed the most commonly used terms in Ethereum 2.0 for users who have a little understanding of technology. Please note that this is not an exhaustive list, but gives key details to address areas where readers may have questions.

If you find any discrepancies, or if you would like to contact us for any reason, you can contact us via Twitter (@AlethioEthstats) or our newly created Discord channel (

Beacon chain
  • Participant-chain coordination
  • Proof of Rights (PoS) Chain
  • Including beacon block
  • Consensus layer
  • Management verifier
  • Implement reward and punishment mechanism
  • Serve as an anchor for shards by cross-linking
Slice chain
  • There are 1024 segmented chains
  • Semi-independent chain
  • Fragment block
  • The state of the tile is periodically recorded on the beacon chain by cross-linking.
  • Once the block on the beacon chain is finalized, the corresponding fragmented block that is in the cross-link is also considered final.
  • Each shard chain has a verifier committee to prove block validity
Crosslinks Crosslinks
  • Summary of fragmentation status
  • Only quote fragments on the beacon chain
Time slot Slot
  • The time period during which the block proposer creates a block for verification
  • There may be no blocks in the time slot
  • The time slot is filled with proven blocks
Time Epoch
  • Consists of several time slots (currently 64 time slots), after which the Certifier Board reorganizes
Validator Validators
  • The certifier bond contract pledges 32 ETHs, the user running the certifier node
  • A certifier may have multiple states: inactive (not yet running as a true certifier); may be actively working on validation, or may be in an unresolved state (choose to be a certifier but still in the queue); Exited (no longer validated, in the exit queue)
Block proposer Block Proposers
  • The random certifier specified by the beacon chain, the block proposed for verification
  • There is a block proposer for each time slot on the beacon chain, and each time slot has a proposer for each time slot.
Prove Attestations
  • Voting determines the validity of a fragmented block or beacon chain
  • A set of certifiers randomly selected by the beacon chain to verify the validity of the block (on the beacon chain and the slice chain)
  • At least 128 target verifiers per committee
  • Base token of the beacon chain
  • Initially will receive certifier rewards and lock ETH1 in the verifier's margin contract
Certifier Margin Contract Validator Deposit Contract
  • Smart contract on the workload proof chain (in the context of this article, the Ethereum main network)
  • The ETH1 asset is locked in this smart contract, the event log is sent, and is read by the beacon chain, the same number of ETH2 will be assigned to the current verifier
  • This mechanism may change in the future
  • Before the end of phase 2, the conversion of ETH1 to ETH2 will be one-way and cannot be exchanged for ETH1, but once the verifiers can transfer each other, there is a possibility that the pledged assets can be sold.

Ethereum 2.0 stages
Stage 0 – Beacon Chain
  • Manage certifiers and their pledged assets
  • Organizing committee, election proponent
  • Consensus rules
  • Implement rewards and penalties/penalties
Stage 1 – Fragmentation
  • Build a slice chain and a slice block
  • Anchor each slice to the beacon chain via a cross-link
  • Realize the transfer of bETH between verifiers (this should be done very quickly because it has no technical connection to the fragmentation work)
Phase 2 – Operating Environment
  • Executing virtual machine based on eWASM
  • Every shard has access to all operating environments
  • Ability to trade in the execution environment
  • Ability to run and interact with smart contracts
  • Cross-slice exchange

Given the difficulty of obtaining authoritative information on this issue, I am very grateful to Ben Edgington for giving me the correct guidance on the above. Also thanks to Danny Ryan, Everett Muzzy and Will Villanueva for their corrections.
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Reprinted please specify: ECN Ethereum China