For years, people have been warning how powerful the destructive power of quantum computing is. And when that day comes, it may make the existing encryption standard obsolete, and the blockchain will also be positively impacted. This process seems to be accelerating. For example, technology giants Google and IBM have recently announced the introduction of 53-qubit quantum computers. "Quantum hegemony" seems to be no longer out of reach.
Perhaps you still don't feel this kind of progress, as Google mentioned in his paper: In the world's first supercomputer Summit, which needed to calculate 10,000 years, Google's 53-qubit Sycamore computer took only 3 minutes and 20 seconds.
And Google also predicts that quantum computing power will expand at "double exponential rate", far exceeding the speed of Moore's Law.
Due to fears that quantum breakthroughs are coming, cryptographers have been working hard to develop blockchains that resist quantum computing to counter the explosion of quantum computers.
Compared to Bitcoin, Ethereum will be more threatened by quantum computing.
Traditional blockchains, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum, use classic public key cryptography to sign transactions that are considered vulnerable to quantum computing attacks.
For example, bitcoin developer Pieter Wuille discussed the impact of excessive sub-calculation on bitcoin at the beginning of this year. According to his calculation, the number of bitcoins that will be affected is about 64,642.47197947 BTC (37% of the total). Bitcoin developers are exploring solutions, such as the PQC security signature scheme.
The Ethereum seems to be more affected. According to the analysis of the Ethereum agreement researcher Justin Ðrake, since Ethereum uses the account model, it encourages address reuse, so there will be more than 37% of the Ethanol supply. Will be threatened by quantum computing.
Ethereum 3.0 Project: Quantum Security
At the Ethereal Ethereum Summit held last week, Justin Ðrake first introduced the concept of Ethereum 3.0, which will be an important plan for resisting the threat of quantum computing for the Ethereum platform.
Since the Ethereum 2.0 program has multiple phases to implement (and the implementation is very difficult), the implementation of the Ethereum 3.0 program was initially postponed to 2027.
According to the Ethereum wiki page, Ethereum 3.0 is mainly composed of three parts, which are:
- Application of the Casper CBC algorithm;
- The application of zk-STARKs;
- Implementation of Heterogeneous Sharding ;
Among the three, zk-STARKs is considered to be the top priority of Ethereum 3.0, and Eitafang founder Vitalik also emphasized this point.
The Ethereum Foundation has been paying attention to the field of quantum computing, and they are said to have invested $5 million in research in this area.
So far, researchers have initially found a suitable solution, which is the SNARGs program proposed by researchers from the University of California at Berkeley.
It can be said that this kind of scheme combines the many advantages of the "predecessors".
At present, the progress of the cryptographic algorithm shield is far ahead of the quantum computing sword. Perhaps, as a regular user, we don't need to worry too much about it.
In addition, Ethereum 3.0 has many other improvements, such as:
(The application of zk-STARKs can also greatly compress the verification content, making the data cheaper)
For more information on Ethereum 3.0, readers can check out Justin Ðrake's complete PPT .