Casper Labs parent company CEO: Once the scalability problem is resolved, the blockchain will release the magic

On September 18th, at the 5th Global Blockchain Summit hosted by Wanxiang Blockchain Lab, Marcer Labs parent company ADAPtive CEO Mrinal Manohar published "Permanent Extensibility for All Blockchain Developers" Sexual opportunity.

Casper Labs is a blockchain protocol development company with the goal of creating a new blockchain based on a Proof of Equity (PoS) version that is dedicated to providing the highly anticipated upgrade to the Casper protocol. The network relies on PoS rather than computing power to reach consensus to address scalability issues.

Unlike other guests, Mrinal Manohar did not give a lot of preaching about his project in his speech, focusing on his methodology on the blockchain, from the famous Clark's three laws to Steve Jobs's creation of Apple, and then how to solve it. Blockchain scalability issues. As Clark said, any advanced technology is just like magic at first. Blockchain is no exception, but most people in the world do not recognize the blockchain for three reasons: the first is cost and cost predictability. Second, I don't know how to get started. Third, lack of governance. In this regard, Mrinal Manohar proposed three solutions: First, there must be a stable cost. Second, there must be a very good upgrade mechanism. Third, there must be a bottom-up system that is confident.

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The following is the full text of the speech, Babbitt did not change the original intention of finishing:

Hello everyone, first of all, I want to thank all the sponsors and organizers. Most people agree that the past two days have been great, exciting, and in-depth discussions, the deepest discussion I have ever experienced in my life, so I am full of confidence in the future.

Introducing myself, I was interested in the program when I was a child. I started programming at the age of 11 and later became a computer scientist. I got a degree from Carnegie University. Later I went to Wall Street. In 2012, I became very interested in the blockchain industry. Investment blockchain industry. Today is the people in the industry. The question everyone has to think about is how to provide permanent scalability for everyone.

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I mainly talk about three things.

First of all, there must be an open programming language and standards. I talk about the predictability of prices. Let's talk about the upgrade of the blockchain and why it is crucial for future development.

Before entering a specific speech, let me give you a background. Clarke's Three Rules (Babbit's Note: Clark's Three Laws are proposed by Arthur Charles Clarke of England, explaining the laws of science and culture.) Very well.

The first rule is that if a scientist says something is possible, this is correct. If it is impossible, it may be wrong.

The second rule, the only possibility to find out whether a certain thing is possible, is to cross this boundary and enter into the impossible. Our industry is like this, we have not yet entered the third law.

The third rule says that any sufficiently advanced technology seems to be the same as magic at first.

Give a most representative case.

In 2007, Jobs just launched Apple. Looking back at the video, the best moment he took the phone out, so that the map turned horizontal. Putting two fingers up can enlarge the map, when everyone on the video "wows" up.

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At that time, it was like magic, but these are the existing technologies. The mobile phone is placed horizontally and the touch screen technology has appeared for many years. Packing these technologies together gives people a magical experience.

In fact, many companies have done this by integrating existing technologies and providing a magical experience. Uber, for example, connects passengers to taxis, and Airbnb connects people to the room. In fact, this does not require an intermediate trusted network. In fact, the blockchain is a step closer. It replaces the traditional control architecture with a shared trust network.

Look at the total market value of the smart contract platform to reach about 25 billion to 30 billion US dollars. You may say that the market value has changed. I don't care, I only look at the total market value. Overall, we are still in a preliminary stage.

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It must be realized that the momentum takes time, and it took AWS nine years to have 1 million developer accounts. Apple's App Store took five years to reach 1 million apps, and Microsoft and Google are the same, so the accumulation of development momentum will take time. How can the blockchain look like magic, not technology, how to provide a magical experience?

There are three aspects:

First, use an open programming language instead of a proprietary programming language so that more people can use it.

Second, prices are predictable, and people know how much it costs to use the network.

Third, the path to upgrade now is not clear. We must have processes and mechanisms to ensure that the path to upgrade is clear, which is the same as what entrepreneurs tell us.

There is a survey, why do people not recognize blockchain?

The first is cost and cost predictability. Second, I don't know how to get started, not the programming language they are used to. Another point is the lack of governance, people do not know how to upgrade. All of this is something we can control and we can solve it. Of course, there are other reasons why users don't feel good and people don't know the legal compliance rules.

The problem is that the three most important reasons are that we can solve it. Then what do we do?

First, the proprietary programming language , Solidity is currently the most widely used smart contract programming language, with approximately 10,000 developers using it. But there are 26 million developers in the world, which is very small in terms of proportion.

Now we have seen a very good breakthrough. The research of developers around the world will survey 90,000 developers every year. It can be seen that a total of 84% of developers agree that Rust is the language they want to use. It's Python and TypeScipt, so we have to have an open programming language. I think the system that communicates with everyone will increase participation and bring more opportunities. For example, Web 3.0 is a good example. You can use Python to program in any language.

This architecture allows 95% of programmers to use it, so it's a bit like this. Although I am speaking in English, we provide simultaneous interpretation services. Although we are speaking different languages, we can still communicate. Although everyone's respective abilities are different. The ability of the programmer to open another door can greatly increase its acceptance.

Second, why the predictability of prices is so important . If you are a company, you need to build a decentralized application. If the network transfer cost or blockchain cost accounts for a large part of the total cost, if this cost suddenly rises, it may have a very negative impact on the enterprise. .

Think about the real world. The picture on the left is the case of AWS. Since the launch of AWS, the price has been reduced 48 times in the past 12 years, but the blockchain situation is the opposite, look at GAS. As more users use it, as the network is congested, transaction costs have risen, which is actually the opposite of the real world. It can be seen that AWS is the most widely used cloud service system in the world, its price is falling, and the price of the blockchain is rising. With the development of the system and the increase in the number of users and the increase in scale, the price should be declining, and the scale effect should benefit everyone.

So how to solve this problem?

My solution is to link the price used by GAS or any system to the legal currency. Of course, this brings more problems, such as how to do it, how to hook it, first of all, who to use the data source.

Fortunately, there is a lot of work now, and the decentralized digital finance is Oracle. How to hook? Is it linked to the US dollar? China is now a big economy. Is it linked to the renminbi? Or it can be linked to special drawing rights. The special drawing right is a basket of currencies. It has been used for a long time, there are tens of billions of dollars, and there are many currencies linked to it. In this way, companies can at least predict how much money is needed for deployment on the network, at least to break another door, making promotion easier.

Third, upgrade. Everyone has used the above three platforms, Salesforce, Microsoft, Linux, I am talking about the upgrade of the whole kernel, they have done 15 to 32 upgrades, see some small features of the upgrade, is thousands of times It is. All of these widely used platforms are scalable, and they have been thinking about how to make upgrades easier, how to upgrade them, how to make the platform continue to evolve and adjust? We studied it carefully and found that three points are very important.

The first is abstraction, I will explain it in a simple way, and abstraction means that one layer does not matter another.

Let's take another example, just like the Internet has a network, there is an application layer, just like Google Maps, there is an underlying network below. Google Maps don't need to know what the underlying network does. It just needs to know how to communicate with the underlying network.

The underlying network doesn't need to know what Google Maps does. It just needs to make sure that Google Maps communicates with it reasonably and sends data, so this is an abstract system. For example, the mode of OSI. Therefore, this is actually very suitable for upgrading. For example, in the blockchain, there are many consensus mechanisms. For example, CBC Casper is a consensus mechanism, highly abstract and generalized, and can be easily upgraded. Its interior is also easy to upgrade. The second step is modularity. Separate functions and upgrade one of them. Other modules can be used. For example, Windows has a graphics system, an audio system, and these are independent. These two systems can be upgraded independently. Third, there must be an underlying process. For example, every time Linux upgrades the kernel, you can choose to upgrade, or you can choose not to upgrade. Everyone can follow the established process to make decisions. At the same time, we must also remember that this complete decentralization will bring us some challenge.

I have just cited a lot of examples, with centralized software proposers, and centralized examples. If it is a decentralized blockchain, there must be a decentralized software provider, that is, anyone can propose an upgrade, at least in a completely decentralized blockchain, such as Bitcoin, Ether. Square, anyone can propose software upgrades, and there must be decentralized examples, how to do it?

The upgrade of the agreement is carried out through smart contracts, such as writing a smart contract on the system, and the system is upgraded after reaching a consensus. This should change the game across the industry, making the blockchain upgrade like Oracle and Windows upgrades. There are key requirements in this regard that will bring us some unprecedented challenges. The first thing to know is how to do this non-controversial upgrade. Explain that non-controversial upgrades can give you performance and security. This should be a non-controversial upgrade, and everyone wants to upgrade. Controversial upgrades may have the cost of mining, or this upgrade has changed the decentralized network, which should be a controversial upgrade. What level of modularity do we need? Does it allow people to integrate upgrades, for example, I propose that such upgrades can improve performance, but you have to cut the cost of mining by half. This problem is actually very difficult to solve. There is no perfect answer. This is actually a problem of governance. We must seriously think about it. But if you solve this problem and change the industry, the Dapp of the blockchain can be upgraded by itself. I think this is very magical.

Before I finish, I must first thank everyone for listening. At the same time, we must also remind everyone that in general, what we are talking about today is to have an open programming language and standards, so that all developers can join us. This is what we have to think about. Second, there must be a stable fee to help the company. Third, there must be a very good upgrade mechanism to enable people to have greater confidence in such an underlying system. Our colleagues are thinking about these issues every night, and there are some concepts to solve them. We need to solve them.