This article is just the beginning, and we hope that we will write more articles as the Eth 2.0 release approaches.
Ethereum's “quiet” era (or “Ethereum 2.0”) has been long-awaited by the community, and the Ethereum network has moved from a workload proof mechanism to a rights proof mechanism, and there are also some huge upgrades in terms of scalability. An important milestone in the area is the completion of the Phase 1 development plan, and we can now begin to see the results of previous extensive research and development efforts.
When I started to understand serenity (or Ethereum 2.0!), the first thing that made me feel awkward was the new terminology. For example, what is Crosslink? Slot is 啥, is it a block? [This is really not a spoiler. Is the witness (attestor) and the validator (validator) the same thing?
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The following list attempts to interpret the most commonly used terminology in the Ethereum 2.0 world, hoping to make it easier for Ethereum users to understand Eth 2.0. Keep in mind that this is not an exhaustive list, but highlights the details that you might have in doubt.
If you find any inconsistencies or want to contact us for any reason, please contact us via Twitter or our newly created Discord channel
- Basic chain of all chains
- Use of a proof of interest mechanism
- Composed of beacon blocks
- Consensus layer of the entire system
- Management verifier
- Implement rewards and punishments
- Crosslinking as the anchor point for each slice
- There are 1024
- Semi-independent chain
- Composed of fragmented blocks
- The state of the slice is periodically recorded on the beacon chain by cross-linking
- Once a block is finalized on the beacon chain, the slice block referenced by the cross-link in the block is considered to be determined.
- Each shard has a verifier committee that verifies the block
- Summary of fragmentation status
- Uploaded to the beacon chain only as a reference to the shard
- The time the block proposer proposes the block and is used for verification
- If there is consensus within the certifier committee, the time slot will successfully generate a block, otherwise the slot will be empty.
Epoch (time slot)
- A time period in which multiple time slots (currently 64) are combined. After one time period is processed, the system will randomly shuffle the verifier (schedule the verifier to a new location) and form a new one for each segment. Committee
- The user can become a verifier by depositing 32 ETH in the verifier margin contract.
- There are four types of certifiers: inactive (has not yet fulfilled certifier responsibilities), activated (verifying), waiting (becoming a verification node but still waiting in the queue), and exiting the verification node (hope to release The verifier is responsible, and the card is in the exit queue. (Translator's Note: There is a waiting period for entering and exiting. The system is to arrange the verifier to form a committee, and it is a point-to-point connection. To make this process as smooth as possible, let the verifier The number does not fluctuate significantly).
Block Proposers (block proposer)
- A certifier randomly selected by the beacon chain, responsible for packing blocks
- There is a block proposer for each time slot on the beacon chain, as is each fragment (one proposer per time slot)
Attestations (witness information)
- Voter's vote on the validity of the fragmentation block and beacon chain block
- A set of verification nodes randomly selected by the beacon chain, responsible for witnessing the beacon chain and the blocks generated by the fragmentation
- The goal is to have at least 128 verification nodes per committee
ETH2 or BETH
- Base token of the beacon chain
- The user locks eth1 in the verifier's margin contract and gets eth2 from the reward
Validator Deposit Contract
- Smart contract on Ethereum 1.0
- Lock the ETH1 funds into this smart contract, the contract will issue an event log; then the beacon chain will read the log, assign the same number of ETH2 to the user account, and treat the user account as a verifier
- This mechanism may change in the future
- Prior to Phase2, the transfer of ETH1 to ETH2 was unidirectional and did not retrieve ETH1, but once the transfer function between certifiers was turned on, there was a secure window to sell ETH.
Ethereum 2.0 stages
Stage 0 – Beacon Chain
- Manage the number of certifiers and benefits
- Organizing committees, selecting block generators
- Consensus rule
- Reward, punish, verifier
Stage 1 – Fragmentation
- Build shards and generate blocks
- Anchoring the block generated by the slice to the beacon chain (crosslinking)
- Allows verifiers to transfer money to each other (this feature may be turned on before Phase1 arrives because it is technically not associated with the shard)
Phase 2 – Execution Environment
- Ewasm-based virtual machine for execution… execution environment (EE)
- Every shard has access to all execution environments
- Can trade in the execution environment
- Can run smart contracts and interact with smart contracts
- Cross-sliced communication
It's hard to get authoritative information on this issue, and thanks to Ben Edgington, I have a clear understanding of some of the above. Thanks also to Danny Ryan , Everett Muzzy and Will Villanueva for modifying the above information.
Original link: https://medium.com/alethio/ethereum-2-0-terms-demystified-8398357429d7 Author: Alex T & Proofreading Translation: Peter Chen & A sword
This article is authored by the author to translate and republish EthFans.
(This article is from the EthFans of Ethereum fans, and it is strictly forbidden to reprint without the permission of the author.