According to Verdict, researchers at the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland have proposed a low-energy, low-cost alternative to Bitcoin called Byzantine Reliable Broadcast. Professor Rachid Guerraoui of the School of Computer and Communication Science explained that rethinking consensus can save energy – “We have adopted a minimalist approach. We realize that players do not need to reach consensus, they just need to prevent malicious behavior. So, let's assume that everyone is honest. If the player sees someone trying to do evil, they will ignore that player — and just ignore that player.