Joseph Lubin: How do you get to the decentralized internet?

Foreword: This is a speech by Joe Lubin at Devcon, Osaka, Japan. Today's Internet is the world dominated by web 2.0, so how to enter the world of web 3.0, a world of value networks without the need to license without trust. The author believes that to reach the world of web 3.0, there are three major improvements: privacy and confidentiality, scalability, and usability. This article was translated by the "SIEN" of the "Blue Fox Notes" community.

Today I want to talk about the broad architecture of the decentralized World Wide Web and how it can be arrived. Give the key point first: the key element is the user.

Today's web 2.0 world is made up of isolated gardens. There really isn't much open network. Google's front-end provides services to everyone, while also benefiting from the user's content. Facebook, Twitter and many other gardens trap us in the wall.

This is not the way the Internet started. The Internet initially promised some form of decentralization. This is about building a robust network architecture that will not be usable if other parts of the network are damaged.

In contrast to circuit-switched networks, in packet-switched networks, information is more likely to be dynamically routed around the damage. (Blue Fox Note: Circuit exchange requires an appointment. Once occupied, other people can't get it, and packet exchange does not require an appointment. The line resources are available on a first-come, first-served basis. This is like going to the restaurant to eat, seeing that there is space to sit down, no need to make an appointment. If there is no space, you can only wait; for circuit exchange, you need to make an appointment first. After you arrive at the restaurant, you can use the reservation number to occupy the seat.)

The Internet begins with some form of decentralization commitment.

The early password punk was the godfather of everyone today. In today's web2.0 era, in order to use the Internet, we have given up personal information and power. For most netizens, it can be frustrating if they are deprived of Gmail, Google search, Google docs, Twitter, Amazon services, Apple's ecosystem and Facebook's various features.

The network is broken or incomplete because it does not have a native identity or currency construction. Without native currency building, the network uses advertising as its core business model. Without a native build of security and privacy identity, the network is becoming more and more exploitative before we realize that advertising technology's cancer is spreading and killing patients.

Applying deep learning techniques to the commercialization of personal information and attention drives us to indulge in social networks. These technologies that should have given us strength are now jeopardizing many individuals, and it is also becoming a large-scale target for our society. The tool of operation.

After identifying these thorny issues in the network architecture control system, many people have proposed some promising solutions. These solutions are not yet mature, but they point to the path to the future of the network and society, and we can remain optimistic about it.

Promising solutions involve techniques for decentralized protocols. These solutions will soon and systematically apply zero-knowledge technology, so in this case, only the content that must be disclosed under certain circumstances can be shared – whether you enter the bar and indicate that you have reached the legal level. Age (without revealing your home address), or indicate that you have the ability to ship a certain amount of grain without revealing the company name.

These solutions involve a token-based incentive collaboration mechanism. We will no longer be in a world where companies have some kind of confrontation with our customers, and we will soon be living on business and leisure networks. These networks bring together actors of various roles and design incentives through token-based mechanisms, so that collective collaboration acts on every platform, it serves everyone, everyone works together and co-owns and governs The platform. As the value of the platform increases, all owners who play different roles can benefit from it.

These solutions will allow us to establish our own managed identity, through the DID (Decentralized Identity) specified by the Decentralized Identity Foundation, we control the root of the ID and implement it in the form of uPort, Civil ID and other products.

According to the W3C, a verifiable statement will enable us to submit the cryptographic certificate on the DID to the DID on behalf of others, such as age, payment of utility bills, educational achievement, credit score or development. The level of performance and so on.

Perhaps most importantly, Web 3.0 will be more user-centric than any previous Internet platform, ultimately placing users at the center of the user experience. People must control the roots of their identity so that their identity information is not stolen and their personally identifiable information is controlled so that they cannot be used.

Even in extreme cases, refugees are removed from their country and cannot carry any physical property to their new home. They should also be able to easily obtain their decentralized status and regain their continued portable personal history and verifiable statements. The reputation of the form, these are all associated with the DID.

Web 3.0 will be more user-centric than any previous Internet platform, ultimately placing users at the center of the user experience.

Under the paradigm of web 3.0, all users will have real agents, social and economic agents at all levels, all of which happen on many collaborative networks where we will work and live. (Blue Fox Note: The agent here means that personal interests at the economic and social levels are realized through the native network identity.) This will be a new structure of society, and this structure will support broader governance participation. And a wider distribution of wealth.

We are moving fast towards the world of web 3.0, although sometimes it looks slow. Why does it look slow? Because for which observers, they hear their potential and expect it to be realized immediately. Just like the Internet and the Internet, mobile phones and cars are born with mature products, and they have a complete infrastructure. Just as the global grid is driven by Edison, just as the 787 and F35 are waiting to be tested on the runway at Kitty Hawk International Airport.

Achieving a well-structured Web 3.0 world will involve three major improvements: privacy and confidentiality, scalability, and usability.

With the exploration of zero-knowledge technology, stateful channel mechanisms, and layer2 privacy chain architecture, privacy and confidentiality are rapidly evolving.

We have seen and will continue to see tremendous improvements in scalability. With the construction of various layer2 solutions, the release and anchoring of Ethereum layer1 for additional security, this approach has also evolved rapidly. In addition, there are many uses of out-of-chain computing, using interactive computing games and zero-knowledge proof techniques, stateful channel mechanisms, and layer2 public and private chain architectures.

This year we have seen thousands of decentralized TPSs that were added to Ethereum layer2. Probably by the end of 2020, we will see thousands of upgrades now, as Ethereum Phase0 will interact in the first quarter of 2020, and Phase 1 and 2 will probably be completed by the end of the year.

There has also been a huge improvement in usability. Few people recall the painful thing of dialing up through a 9600 or 14.4 baud modulation regulator. The applications and web pages at the time were simple, but it was not uncommon to wait 30 seconds to load the page. And often you are not sure if it is still connected or loading.

In the morning, you go to the workbench, start the mail client to download the email, and then go to the cup of coffee, so you can free up some time for the POP or IMAP server to synchronize the mail before you can read and reply. This was around 1993-94. We saw some similar problems in the early implementation phase of web 3.0 technology.

For web 3.0, many projects are exploring "gradual entry technology," which allows users to get started with dApp immediately, and then with the investment attention and currency growth on the dApp, responsibility is gradually handed over from the dApp to the user.

The new wallet architecture is using the multi-signature tool pioneered by Gnosis Wallet and Safe, and adds social recovery (launched by uPort, Blue Fox note: so-called social recovery is similar to micro-signal recovery, through acquaintances to help restore wallet And the social acceptance (or rejection) of intentional user behavior to ensure that early adopters are not hurt by the cutting edge of this new technology.

Moreover, any system like ENS is becoming more and more popular, so we won't have to see a long list of hexadecimal addresses, as we rarely see the four IP addresses in dotted decimal notation. The same as the octet.

Implementing a well-structured Web 3.0 world will involve improvements in three areas: privacy and confidentiality, scalability, and usability.

The Web 2.0 architecture does not only represent personal identity risks, it also represents a variety of platform risks.

Artists and others have a platform risk if they find themselves being removed from the system on which they depend for their livelihood. Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube now have tremendous energy to form narratives, debates, and broad ethics.

For start-ups and other companies, there are also platform risks. These companies found that the rules of the platform could change within the platform as the platform evolved, and it eroded the company's interests, and was a partner a few years ago. Once the top of the curve is used at S, it continues to increase revenue, resulting in this anti-competitive behavior.

Google, Amazon, Facebook, LinkedIn, Apple, and Microsoft are all large platforms. As a netizen, I like and need Google and Amazon, but its unfair advantage in e-commerce activities and AWS cloud is amazing, the same applies to Google.

A new hidden platform risk has emerged recently. Just as Facebook, Linkedin, and other platforms are starting to eat lunches from startups, the cloud is eroding the profits of companies built on open source projects.

  • AWS has been accused of rewriting, reusing, and rebranding products without supporting underlying open source, and has been criticized for often eliminating the profits of for-profit companies that commercialize open source projects.
  • Many people argue that this behavior is acceptable in the case of open source licensing. Others think there is a hidden social contract, and some companies like Amazon don't give back when they capture value from the open source community.

Vertical integration supports such anti-competitive behavior. I believe that the world of web 3.0 will be largely horizontally layered, with clear interface promises between layers or between layers of collaborative components.

Considering that our field is mainly composed of open source projects, is this a problem for our field?

I will argue that we have an opportunity: this technology is unique and builds things in different ways. Applications running on a blockchain network may be affected by different economics: of course, encryption economics. The best blockchain systems are very clear on the cost, which should be paid by the appropriate participants.

In some cases, he is the end user. In some cases, he may be the publisher of the app, possibly through a gas station network or other meta-transaction mechanism. The blockchain network will better address possible negative externalities and bring them internally, while naturally benefiting from large-scale positive externalities, such as network effects.

All participants on these networks will operate from the location of the individual or company agent. Many people will be compensated for their role on the web, and they will in turn compensate them for the value provided by other people, organizations or dApps.

Decentralized governance and the ability to fork open source code libraries to release competing platforms reduces platform risk and even forks the operating platform when the platform stops serving the entire community. We all understand that forks are a very healthy and powerful economic tool.

Ultimately, more advanced platforms will make it easier to fork, copy all states, or build stateless systems that make forks easier to implement, ensuring that managers of incentive systems become and maintain good governance. The fork effectively keeps those “exports” in a broader interior, supporting extended communities to define themselves in a broader, and more diverse term. John Gilmore is a loyal supporter of the fork mechanism.

My focus is on maximum decentralization, no licensing, the basic trust layer is Ethereum, and it has the potential for global settlement as a native digital asset and digital real-world asset, largely without platform risk.

But I think that when some people believe that all blockchain systems must be completely unlicensed and decentralized, this view is short-sighted.

When you issue a valuable asset or anchor it to the underlying trust layer, that layer must be decentralized to the greatest extent, and its requirements are completely unlicensed. However, it is valuable to add some decentralization functionality to the use cases developed between a few counterparties, but this is best done on a proprietary licensing system.

For example, a commodity trading financial platform that links banks and commodity traders does not need to be completely decentralized and unlicensed in 2019 in order to become a better platform for trade between the parties. By 2020, the horizontal linking of commodity trading financial platforms to commodity trading platforms, payment platforms, corporate identity platforms, and insurance platforms may be meaningful.

These networks can be horizontally linked to each other using bridge or Liquality technologies that enable unmediated, untrusted atomic exchange or cross-network boundary messaging. Liquality technology has linked Ethereum and Bitcoin in a way that is untrustworthy.

By 2021, all of these platforms are anchored at the Ethereum base layer to improve their security without sacrificing scalability, and the base layer can also be used as a trusted message and transaction bus between applications.

This suggests that the decentralized World Wide Web architecture looks like a patchwork blockchain, some of which may be private and licensed, linked to each other and anchored to no license and maximum decentralization using various techniques. In the basic trust layer. Ethereum 2.0 is currently a candidate for the base layer because it is currently focused on maximizing decentralization in all dimensions.

The network of blockchain architecture is in line with the fact that the Internet is the Internet of the Internet. Finally, our planet will have an automatic, objective and credible foundation of trust that will replace the infrastructure we have built for thousands of years of subjective trust.

In order to continue to address scalability issues, we must implement the least feasible decentralization, and we are building a new licensed Ethereum network. Looking ahead, we will have expansive considerations, but there is no need to provide excessive security for each use case. We will be accustomed to designing systems with appropriate degree of decentralization.

We should start thinking about building the layer2 blockchain network as a logical build, because as time goes by, we want to cancel these structures and put them back into a more powerful physical architecture. We need to start designing such an upgrade. Ultimately, most of the world's private licensing systems will run on unlicensed structures, just as today's group and government IT infrastructures mostly run on the cloud, simply because it will be the best to run these systems. basis.

The base layer is not required to be licensed and decentralized, which is critical because it is the source of our trust. This layer of trust must be global so that we can build an international financial and trading system that all countries can work with.

What makes Ethereum the best choice for the current global foundation trust layer?

Matteo Leibowitz once mentioned "allocation of the four dilemmas." His argument is that since the regulators have woken up, any agreement after 2015 that wants to be widely adopted has to pay attention to the following four pillars:

1. Tokens must be issued widely and fairly.

2. The community must remain engaged, energetic, and grow over time. One way to achieve this goal is to enable the currency held by the community to appreciate. Incidental note: The community must be able to attract a large number of the best and brightest developers and entrepreneurs.

3. The project must introduce sufficient funds to achieve delivery, maintenance, and continuous improvement.

4. Finally, this is a new puzzle: the project must be compliant.

Among all these competitors, the killer of Ethereum, in the past few years after Bitcoin and Ethereum, has not been convincingly seen to meet all of the above four requirements. The best way to build and develop a strong community is to sell tokens to the community and promise that it will appreciate, and they will work hard to do so. This is the definition of securities. Since you are selling cards, your tokens will not be widely distributed, so your community will not be strong. Over time, innovative mechanisms will emerge, but so far, no other projects have gained widespread attention, and it is hard to imagine a world-wide trust base and global settlement layer on the VC Coin project.

The SEC has recently slapped the EOS project's token sales, but that doesn't mean that projects like EOS can successfully raise funds. The SEC is gradually improving and has a strong sense of presence. Today, it will close the sale of tokens like EOS.

Only Ethereum is mature enough, decentralized, and programmable to adapt to today's infrastructure, industry, and individual needs, and to have the power and roadmap to support all of these long-term visions.

Therefore, we will have a horizontal decentralized collaboration layer instead of the vertical walled garden of web 2.0.

We have Ethereum as the foundation layer for the implementation of trusted transactions and guarantee agreements, which link to decentralized storage, bandwidth, mass computing, identity, location proof and other protocols.

Most importantly, we will provide an open, decentralized financial channel for the emerging global economy. This will include price-stable tokens, lending networks, liquidated decentralized exchanges, various forms of tokenized assets, other financial instruments such as derivatives and synthetic assets, payment systems, and subscription systems. And a pledge and verification system. For a particular type of network and token, even the governance system is partially at the financial pipeline level.

Tokened webinars

In the blockchain, tokens are numerical representations of value units, including digital assets or numbers…

Many of the blockchain systems we continue to build will be launched and enhanced by the increasingly powerful and complex financial layer. For example, the IT industry is becoming more and more refined and commoditized. Trusted computing, massive computing, storage, and bandwidth are all distributed across the cloud and fog infrastructure. We will use tokens to coordinate, provide and pay for these services in real time. Service providers and users will need native digital financial instruments to hedge their pricing and other risks.

The basic trust layer supports the financial layer. At this financial pipeline level, other emerging global digital economies will be built. Being active in the field of technology is an amazing time. When nerds are going to inherit the earth far beyond the previous technological era, this is a great era for developers.

In the next few years, there will be a tug-of-war competition. The anti-pattern of web 2.0 will not disappear quickly, and many valuable web 2.0 builds will evolve to benefit web 3.0. Of course, there will be a web 2.0 wolf wearing web3.0 sheepskin.

Nerds will inherit the earth

In order to achieve faster technological evolution and social progress, we just need more web3.0 developers. We need the best and brightest developers who come from the world of web 2.0, but understand what might happen under the new paradigm.

There are 30 million software developers worldwide. Roughly estimated, this number includes:

  • 600,000 open source developers
  • 12 million Java developers
  • 8 million Python developers
  • 20 million Apple/iOS developers
  • 3 million Microsoft developers
  • 15,000 Linux developers

Therefore, this is my requirement for the number of Ethereum developers next year: Let us have 1 million developers using Ethereum technology for development.

Based on Truffle downloads and other metrics, we can estimate that about 500,000 software developers are involved in Ethereum-related development, and there may be 200,000 or more people working full-time on Ethereum-related work.

At first glance, the 1 million Ethereum developers sound too ambitious, but I think that as long as we work together, we may achieve our goals within one year. Ethereum has a solid developer mind and motivation. We have a lot of people and teams who put time and effort into improving tools and resources. We have some of the most fascinating and cutting-edge software technologies in the world.

All of us have decided to build our skills from day to night and weekends, and we have made progress in this way in just a few years. Starting with the Ethereum project, it is inevitable for me, although its speed is surprising. But for all who are observing and waiting for us, let us go further. This is a challenge: one million Ethereum developers. Some are too ambitious, but we may be able to try.

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