The Beijing News (Reporter Zhang Wei) Recently, the Politburo collectively studied the blockchain, making the blockchain once again a focus of attention. The reporter learned that some departments in Beijing have explored the application of blockchain technology to allow citizens to enjoy the convenience of new technologies in advance. So, what exactly is the blockchain? What are the advantages and characteristics? What changes can bring to life?
Haidian government affairs chain completed 2 minutes to complete material verification
At the beginning of this year, Haidian District launched a pilot application of blockchain technology in the field of government services. In the real estate transaction scenario, through the sharing of data related to multiple municipal departments, the staff does not need to submit ID cards, marriage certificates or divorce certificates, real estate licenses and other materials for verification. The on-site verification materials were reduced from ten to three, and the verification time was reduced from 15 minutes to 2 minutes.
Liu Yi, a CTO of a company that provides technical support for the blockchain pilot in Haidian District, introduces the relevant characteristics of blockchain technology, which can be applied not only to finance, insurance, electronic depository, etc., but also to data between various departments in the government sector. Real-time sharing issues, auxiliary window personnel and approvers verify the authenticity of the material.
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“The transaction volume of Haidian real estate is relatively large. In the past, the staff needed to verify the authenticity of paper materials on the spot. Now it is possible to obtain and verify the authenticity of the information directly by means of the blockchain, which reduces the work pressure of the staff and improves the accuracy of the work. ”
In the same way, relying on the blockchain, Haidian District has also launched the “Real Estate Registration + Electricity Transfer” simultaneous processing measures. When citizens and enterprises handle real estate registration, they can apply for electricity transfer, saving time and effort.
In September this year, the “Haidiantong” APP was launched. “Haidiantong” APP explores the sharing of data with national and municipal data through blockchain technology, and launches “information authentication” services, including business licenses, tax credit information, and marriage information, including national data and ID cards, and household registration books. 9 categories of city-level data. The citizens of the office can obtain information about their own situation from the chain at any time.
"In an ideal scenario, you can use the APP to get the latest information from the chain and verify it automatically without showing your ID." Liu Yi said.
Decentralized information "self-managed" is safer
Government affairs "data sharing" is not new, what is the difference between the blockchain and the original technology? Liu Yi said that the blockchain is decentralized. The past data sharing is based on the big data center. There will be a centralized organization. Everyone will collect the data into the center and distribute it. The real-time and update mechanism cannot guarantee. Centralization also leads to unclear ownership of data.
The blockchain realizes the information “self-management”, that is, the data of the commission office is still in its own hands, but it is authorized to be retrieved according to business needs.
"Only when the request is initiated, obtaining and verifying it according to the authorization is equivalent to holding the hand once, and some government departments are more acceptable to such sharing."
In the past, data sharing was mostly packaged and sent information, but the blockchain has smart contract technology to distinguish between services and scenarios. For example, the real estate department needs to obtain the marriage data of the civil affairs department, and the civil affairs department can authorize certain fields to be opened and finely managed according to the corresponding business.
The distributed deployment of blockchains is also more secure.
"The original big data center is brought together at one point. If it is attacked, as long as it attacks the center point, all information will be exposed."
He explained that the current scheme, through the encryption algorithm, ensures that all departments have control over the issuance of licenses, and that the flood control is more modified, and the data acquisition and verification are independently authorized, and the security is more secure.
Will the information on the chain be “recognized” by more commissions? Liu Yi said that there is no technical problem, but what can be used in the data depends on the degree of openness of the government affairs of the commission office.
The Beijing Internet Court also used blockchain technology. In August of this year, the Beijing Internet Court stated that it has collected more than 6.4 million pieces of evidence online using blockchain technology. Recently, the Beijing Internet Court adopted the blockchain smart contract technology to complete the first case of “one-click filing”, which is only three steps compared with the traditional seven-step process, reducing the steps and time.
Explore and launch “government winding” to broaden the scope of application
Li Guangqian, a researcher at the Information Center of the Development Research Center of the State Council, believes that the blockchain should be applied to the e-government field, which is more difficult and difficult than the application of e-commerce and enterprise information. For example, the system and system design of e-government, the underlying thinking is centralized, which is contrary to the core attribute of the blockchain, namely decentralization. This has an impact on the technology choice of the blockchain. In addition, smart contracts are suitable for most scenarios, but according to relevant regulations, some e-government scenarios must be handled manually. At the same time, there is still a need for regulation in blockchain technology and industrial development.
He suggested speeding up the top-level design of the e-government application blockchain and exploring the launch of the “government chaining” project. Relevant departments should unite the blockchain enterprises to establish corresponding promotion alliances. The application of blockchain technology in key areas such as drug supervision, anti-counterfeiting, and key business traceability will be mainly applied to the sandbox model in the field of financial technology to expand into some important areas of e-government.
Q1 What is the blockchain?
Song Shuang, assistant researcher at the Institute of World Economics and Politics of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, said that the core of the blockchain is distributed ledger technology and encryption algorithms. Each transaction node records the information at the same time. When the transaction information reaches a certain number, it will form a block. After each block is encrypted, a hash value will be formed to ensure that the block information will not be tampered with. As the amount of information continues to increase, more blocks are created in chronological order, and each block contains the hash value of the previous block, thereby forming a complete chain, which is the blockchain.
Li Guangqian said that the blockchain includes four core technologies: distributed ledger, consensus mechanism, smart contract, and cryptography. Simply put, the general account book is lost or smeared, and the account information can not be found. Blockchain can ensure that stakeholders keep the same book, it is difficult to tamper with or delete, and more than 51% of the people agree to meet the technical requirements, to ensure that each transaction has a purpose, source and process.
Q2 What are the advantages of the blockchain?
Song Shuang said that the blockchain information is distributed at different nodes and is decentralized. Block nodes without central nodes are not vulnerable to attacks, and data is not easily falsified.
Li Guangqian said that blockchain technology is not a single technology, but is based on the combination of existing technology innovations, including asymmetric encryption algorithms, database technology, etc., to achieve functions that could not be achieved before. The blockchain has the characteristics of “multi-party writing, common maintenance”, “public account book”, “decentralization” and “not tampering”.
Blockchain is a decentralized credit establishment paradigm that does not require trust accumulation. Any individual who does not understand each other can join an open and transparent database through a certain contract mechanism, through peer-to-peer accounting, data transmission, authentication, etc. A credit consensus is reached with the help of any intermediary.
Q3. Which scenarios can the blockchain be applied to?
Song Shuang said that the traditional application area of blockchain is digital currency, and there are also application scenarios in trade finance, charity finance, supply chain management and sharing economy. For example, in the supply chain, information on each part of the product is recorded on the chain, which makes it easy to trace back to the production process and corresponding standards of the product. Once the information is on the chain, it cannot be tampered with, ensuring product quality and safety.
Li Guangqian said that in terms of medical health, the blockchain can be used for digital cases, privacy protection, and so on. In education, it can be used for file management, student credit, academic credentials, and certificate of achievement. Cultural aspects can be used for copyright, digital content confirmation, etc. In terms of social management, it can be used for identity authentication, notarization, inheritance, personal social credit, and so on.
Q4. What problems are there in the development of blockchain?
Song Shuang said that at present, there is no consensus and standard for the design of the underlying architecture of blockchain technology. In terms of solving some problems, each institution or enterprise has its own technical preferences. Blockchain information is heavily recorded and requires a large amount of storage space. In the public chain, since each node has to record information, the transaction time is relatively slow, and the number of transactions processed per unit time and the number of transactions processed by WeChat and Alipay are several orders of magnitude.
Li Guangqian said that at present, blockchain technology is at the initial stage of development, and there are still many technical solutions that need to be broken. The blockchain needs a breakthrough in performance to meet more applications. For example, there are obstacles in the high-frequency trading of Bitcoin, which can only handle 7 transactions per second, and cannot satisfy the situation of massive trading of “Double 11”.
In addition, there are many chaos around the blockchain technology and industrial development. It is necessary to strengthen industry supervision and prevent blockchain financial risks. Blockchains also face legal issues, such as the automatic execution of "smart contracts" and the contradiction of contract law, and the legal issues of token issuance.
Q5. Can the blockchain solve the privacy problem?
Song Shuang believes that blockchain technology can solve privacy problems, and privacy protection needs to be considered on the premise of meeting regulatory requirements.
Li Guangqian said that although the information on the blockchain can be seen by everyone, there are key technologies, public and private keys. The public key is used when connecting, and the private key is used to store transaction information, which is not visible to others.
Q6. What technologies can the blockchain combine with?
Li Guangqian said that the blockchain itself transmits data, and artificial intelligence can be used to analyze and master the entire data in real time. Song Shuang believes that the blockchain information is recorded in a large amount and requires a large storage space, which can be combined with cloud storage technology.
Q7. What are the characteristics of China's blockchain development?
Li Guangqian said that the United States applies more blockchains to digital currencies. China uses more blockchains to provide new tools and tools for solving real economic problems.
China's blockchain industry has shown rapid development momentum, and Internet giants such as Tencent and Ali have accelerated their entry into the blockchain industry. Although the financial industry is still the mainstream of blockchain applications, it has gradually extended to the physical field, such as electronic information deposit, copyright management and transactions, digital asset trading, Internet of Things, intelligent manufacturing, supply chain management.
Source: Beijing News