Original: Five fireball masters
In a blink of an eye, for three years, it has been nearly three years since the proposed "public chain expansion".
In the past three years, countless teams have come up with a variety of ideas, some have become reality and “rooted” (ie, issued Token), such as: UTXO + smart contract, DPoS, DAG, Layer 2 , large blocks… There are countless PoXs (Proof of various XX).
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Seeing that the three-year period is approaching, ETH 1.0 relies on the 10 to 15 TPS like the turtle speed, still standing firmly in the foothills of the public chain, watching the younger brothers who are “running fast”, laughing No words.
Among them, the one that ran the fastest and the most viewers, called EOS, the initial campaign slogan was “Million TPS”, so many onlookers generously donated and bet the boy who sounded very capable.
In all fairness, EOS may be the most powerful in the exploration of TPS promotion and public chain expansion. Its two innovations are still used or referenced by many emerging public chains:
1. DPoS: The short board effect caused by the traditional barrel chain theory is removed by greatly reducing the number of nodes and enhancing the node capacity. Putting it into reality, it is equivalent to replacing the one-person-one-vote ancient Greek 10,000-person referendum model with the current Western-style representative system of "elite governance."
2. The new Token value capture resource model: Compared to the bitcoin fee and the Ethereum's Gas model, EOS turns the transfer into free, and due to the node advantage of DPoS, the transfer time is also reduced from the minute to the second. EOS represents the proportion of resources on the entire chain (including CPU, memory, bandwidth).
Of course, the cost of this exploratory experiment is the accumulation of billions of dollars. If it is not successful, the cost will be extremely high.
This is not the case. Recently, a lot of people have started to shake and think. Is the idea of expanding in this direction still correct? Different from the previous question whether the DPoS of 21 nodes is enough to decentralize and whether it is easy to collude with nodes, this question is focused on the resource allocation and core mechanism of EOS.
01 is currently not blocked by the public chain
In the short history of Ethereum, there have been many times of blockages.
1, big block: 2017 encryption cat
The large blockage that lasted for several days can be said to be well known in the industry, and it has completely ignited the desire of everyone to upgrade TPS. Say good world computer? A phenomenal DApp can do this, how do you get hundreds of DApps on Ethereum?
2, in the block: a trading platform recharge on the Token
In 2018, a new trading platform, its bitcoin trading volume directly killed the head of the fire currency, currency security. At the end of June, the “Token Rules Publicity on the GEM” was adopted, and the “Accumulative Recharge Number Ranking” online mechanism was adopted. One account and one vote resulted in the support of the project party and the project party at the time, and the crazy recharge of the project platform. I blocked the ether.
3, small block: ERC-20 USDT
One day in September of this year, many people felt the small blockage of Ethereum. Later on, it was actually a USDT transaction with too much USDT transfer and 100,000 times in 7 hours. The ERC-20 USDT has become increasingly popular, and last month was similar to the USDT based on the Omni agreement, which is beyond the reach of the day.
4, micro plugging: Fomo 3D
The reason why it is called micro-blocking is because the time of the blockage is very short, but it is enough for the hacker to get the last key and finally win the grand prize. Originally, everyone thought that in the rest of their lives, they might not see the end of Fomo 3D. As a result, hackers used a similar method of traditional Internet DDOS to create a large number of “junk call calls” that blocked the Ethereum network for a few minutes, thus successfully winning the last one. Take Key, take tens of thousands of ETH awards.
Don't underestimate the "micro-blocking" of this time. In fact, compared with the large, medium and small plugs above, this micro-blocking has exposed the problems of Ethereum network performance and security.
And now, it's EOS.
A few days ago, the "EIDOS Airdrop", which was hotly debated by everyone, was similar to the ENU of the year (after all, the same sponsor). The user transferred any amount of EOS to the project side address, and the smart contract returned the EOS in equal amount and presented the Token of EIDOS. .
At 4 o'clock on the afternoon of November 1, the airdrop began, and a large number of wool party admissions began to transfer money. On November 1st, the number of EIDOS transactions exceeded 5 million, and the next day exceeded 100 million, which directly led to EOS “network 瘫痪”.
The reason for this is simple, and CPU resources are seriously scarce. In the EOS network, the CPU, memory and bandwidth need to be escorted by EOS. When the EOS of the pledge CPU resources surges, the CPU resources that each user can share will naturally be greatly reduced.
Therefore, in order to continue to smash wool, everyone began to mortgage a large number of EOS in exchange for CPU, and even purchased resources from the rental market such as REX , forming a vicious circle in which CPU resources are increasingly scarce and prices are becoming more and more expensive. In a short period of time, the price of the CPU has skyrocketed by a hundredfold.
EOS is congested, and various segments of the Internet appear:
Me: "Boss, don't pay for this month, just give me some EOS."
Boss: "The transfer is not successful, let's talk about it next year."
This time, everyone's criticism of EOS is no longer a problem of 21 nodes going to be centralized, but focusing on the overall architecture design of EOS. After all, this time exposed too many problems.
02 exposed underlying problem
1. What about a good "million TPS"?
When many people were willing to pay for their pockets, they basically went to the word "Million TPS". As for the EOS white paper, there is not much to read carefully. One and a half years after the main online line, the highest TPS is only about 4,000, which is far from the "million".
2, free, but the most expensive
In the same year, EOS transfer seconds and no fees, can be described as "stunning", let people who are accustomed to Bitcoin, Ethereum high handling fees and turtle speed transfer for a time to put it down.
However, when it comes to seconds and free, it is actually an "illusion" that is generated when there are not many people. Once the number of people is used, the price of resources will be expensive.
What is even more frightening is that when the Ethereum is blocked, it is a high fee and a long wait. The fee can be quickly transferred if it is high enough. EOS This time, when the CPU is exhausted, even if there is more EOS in your wallet, there is no way to transfer money. It can only be blink of an eye, because the two routes available for purchase either go up and buy dozens of times. A hundred times the CPU resources, or find a friend to help.
Because of the congestion, the DApp on EOS has been lying down this time. The number of daily activities and transactions has plummeted, because most users can't even transfer money. How can they play games?
3, complex models and wallets
Bitcoin and Ethereum wallets, seemingly meaningless addresses, private keys, and mnemonics , have blocked countless people from the door of the blockchain world and become an invisible threshold. In EOS, not only do you have to know those, but you also need to understand the resource consumption rules, leases, and pledges in exchange for resources such as CPU and memory. On the threshold that is not low, you have piled up two steps.
Many of us have taught parents to use smart phones and teach them to use WeChat, Alipay and even vibrato, and drip taxis. If you work hard, you still want to teach them to use Bitcoin or Ethereum wallets. However, to teach them to use the EOS wallet, or even participate in this airdrop, is simply Mission Impossible (impossible task)!
Of course, there are already service providers who have seen the business opportunities brought about by this complexity. This time, the EIDOS airdrop, some wallet service providers launched the "EIDOS mining machine", providing users with the "mining" service of EIDOS automatic transfer, which greatly saved the user's operation process. In the future, this kind of simplified service will become more and more common in the world of blockchain.
The so-called "blockchain 3.0" seems to have encountered a serious crisis of trust this time.
03. The direction of Ethereum is wrong?
The vast majority of public chains that appeared in 2017-2019 were designed to defeat Ethereum. They claimed to solve the defects of Ethereum and become more perfect.
However, you will find that they may just change one of their ideas or sacrifice one of the "impossible triangles" for another corner. In the general direction, EOS or other Ethereum competing products are still the same as Ethereum, namely:
The code is submitted to the chain through a transaction and becomes a so-called "smart contract." When the contract is executed (miners write it into the block), all nodes need to execute and validate the contract (to ensure validity and consistency).
It is not difficult to find that this model framework itself has a natural problem of scalability. The processing power of the entire network depends on the weakest node in the network (not a single node, which can be a part of the proportion of nodes), and all the operations after the main network line are accumulated on the entire blockchain. Any node that newly joins the network needs Synchronize from the beginning and (for historical reasons only) perform all of these operations in its entirety. These two factors make performance expansion extremely difficult.
Smart contracts have not attracted much attention from the beginning, and when most people began to pay attention to it, Ethereum has long been a well-deserved "king of the public chain", with a huge ecological and developer community, at least quite long For a while, Too Big To Fall is already big.
Most of the EOS-like competing products that emerged later, or extensions such as Layer 2, seem to be tinkering with this model that is not conducive to expansion, or loading an auxiliary tool. Like EOS, try to reduce the number of nodes by DPoS to get better performance and lower latency.
In 2019, we began to see some new ideas, or paradigms: some ideas that jumped open all nodes to execute smart contracts, compute and verify consistency, and make up for the idea that Ethereum has almost no data layer.
When the days when these items representing the "new paradigm of the blockchain" have a flaw, we will use it to make a detailed comparison with Ethereum, hoping that ETH 2.0 will make some progress.
Message Mining No. 369: Old Iron, how do you see EOS blocking this thing, do you still believe that EOS will be blockchain 3.0? Welcome to leave a message in the message area.
『Declaration : This article is the author's independent point of view. It does not represent the vernacular blockchain position, nor does it constitute any investment opinion or suggestion. The copyright and final interpretation rights of the article belong to the vernacular blockchain. 』