In addition to the well-known financial sector, the application of blockchain in many other industries is gradually evolving. The blockchain system provides an alternative framework for human social life that differs from traditional centralized organizations and centralized governance. How to make this information technology architecture better serve human social life depends not only on the progress of technology, but also on our understanding and imagination of the business.
"Only the name does not see its shape" "Unclearly sharp" "cloud in the fog" … mentioning the blockchain, this is the first reaction of many people, "coin circle" "chain circle" is a lot of onlookers I can't figure it out. And just when you don't understand what the blockchain is, it has actually entered your life.
Since its birth, the blockchain has gained the attention of almost all countries, enterprises and related organizations in the world, with its decentralization, trust to third parties, collective maintenance of the system, difficulty in tampering with data, and unforgeability. In the financial sector, which is well known to many people, the application of blockchain in many other industries is gradually expanding.
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Can piracy disappear? How do love donations go? How do you confirm that the "Yangcheng Lake Hairy Crab" is actually produced from Yangcheng Lake? These seemingly intractable questions, the blockchain can give an answer.
Two business scenarios
Speak from the community where you live. Equipment management is the business content of the relative core of the property system. Traditionally, after a device in a cell fails, the device user feeds the fault information to the device management center through the corresponding channel. The equipment management center will send a single order to the equipment maintenance personnel and assign personnel to perform maintenance. After the equipment maintenance personnel complete the maintenance task, the maintenance results are fed back to the equipment management center.
This process is not only slow and cumbersome, but also prone to push and tear. For example, does the equipment management center send people to repair in time? If there is still a problem with the equipment after the repair, is the maintenance personnel not going to the site for repair, or the fault that occurred after the repair? With blockchain technology, dealing with similar issues will become more efficient.
After the corresponding sensing device is installed around the cell device, the running state of the device will be perceived in real time and written into the corresponding blockchain. If there is a problem with the health of the equipment, the equipment management center, equipment maintenance personnel, and equipment users can find it in the first place. Then, the equipment maintenance personnel will work directly according to the division of responsibilities, and no longer need to wait for the equipment management center to send the order; after the equipment is repaired, the equipment maintenance personnel are not required to fill in the corresponding report returns to the equipment management center, all the states are in the district. The blockchain system is clear at a glance. In the blockchain system environment, even the device management center can be cancelled.
Another typical scenario is notarization. In real life, many things can only be legally validated by notarization, such as wills. If the will is not notarized, then after the death of the client, it is prone to disputes over property division; if the will is notarized, there will be concerns about the notarization of the notary before the commission of life, especially when the will involves huge amounts of property. The concerns are even more pronounced. How to use the blockchain to solve the notarization of wills?
After the client forms the digitized information, the client can encrypt it and digitally sign it by the relevant stakeholders. The signature is written into the blockchain system together with the signed content information. The digital signature here represents the probation of the will and the legal validity of the will. If the will is in addition to the principal, it is also related to the interests of the N individual, then it is possible to design a (N, N+1) threshold signature (classifying the group's signature rights in a threshold manner).
This program will divide the super-added wills into N+1 copies according to the algorithm, and each person holds 1 copy. Only when N people agree, all the secrets can be untied. Since the will involves the interests of all relevant stakeholders, when the client is alive, the N relevant stakeholders cannot cooperate to solve the secret in advance in order to obtain the will of the will, and only when the client dies will they cooperate. Get the will content.
This will was previously digitally signed by the relevant interested party and therefore has the same legal effect as the notary. At the same time, these related rights holders did not know the contents of the will in advance, and well maintained the living conditions before the commission of life.
Six application areas
The first is the field of government affairs.
Government work is the central system of social operation. The traditional government affairs system is based on one-way information flow, which is slow, inefficient, and has asymmetry of information. It is also prone to breed corruption. The government system based on the Internet and big data has greatly improved the efficiency and transparency of government affairs, but the existence of various information islands makes the government departments obtain complete information while occupying more information than the original. The difficulty is no less than when there is no internet.
The blockchain-based government system can break the data monopoly and various information islands, greatly improve the operational efficiency of the government system, and provide better government services for people.
For example, in terms of precision poverty alleviation. A prominent problem in the process of poverty alleviation is that it is difficult to supervise poverty alleviation funds, and the accuracy is insufficient and difficult to trace. The blockchain technology can “wind up” every step of fund approval, and it can be traced to each person. At the same time, in the key links of poverty alleviation work, such as fund allocation, approval, and issuance, Through the multi-party consensus and joint verification, the whole process can be incorporated into the supervision to ensure the transparency of the whole process and effectively eliminate corruption.
In addition, in the identification of poor households, the original human identification can be changed to data identification through big data technology. On this basis, the intelligent contract that introduces the blockchain, once judged by the data as a poor household, triggered by the smart contract, the approval of funds, the release of funds, etc., can not only reduce the workload of government workers, but also make the poverty alleviation work more precise and effective.
The second is the medical field.
For example, the use of blockchain technology can solve the problem of protecting patient privacy and medical data security that has plagued the medical field for many years.
As technology advances and personal privacy awareness increases, patient medical records and privacy information increasingly need to be protected, especially for particularly sensitive treatment records. At the same time, the physical data of healthy people is also an important private information of modern society. In particular, large-scale leakage of unique "body password" data such as fingerprints or irises will cause major disasters. Blockchain technology provides a viable “data privacy” solution for the healthcare industry.
One is to put the corresponding medical data on the blockchain system. Because the data on the blockchain is difficult to be tampered with, in the event of medical disputes or other situations requiring authoritative data, the corresponding data can be checked; second, the data on the blockchain has high redundancy, which guarantees medical data. Will not be lost, has high stability and reliability; the third is to establish a multi-private key permission system on the blockchain, assign multiple private keys to individual information data through smart contracts, and set up corresponding according to business needs The rules must be authorized by the appropriate personnel each time the data is accessed, which ensures the security and privacy of the data on the chain.
The use of blockchain technology can also break the deadlock of medical data sharing between hospitals. The medical data of a patient in a medical institution can be opened to other medical institutions in the case of obtaining a license, reducing the number of duplicate inspections, saving inspection costs and improving the efficiency of medical treatment. This is also conducive to the integration of the patient's entire medical data, and then based on the big data system to achieve the patient's full-spectrum medical portrait.
In addition, blockchain technology can also play a role in medical payment and claims, drug traceability and anti-counterfeiting, global identification of doctors, and patient health management. In the clinical trials, it is also possible to establish alliances of different hospitals based on clinical trial tasks, and improve the efficiency and accuracy of clinical trials through task division and data sharing. At the same time, based on the accurate data sharing realized by the blockchain system, the efficiency of new drug development and insurance payment can be improved.
The third is the field of copyright.
Compared with intellectual property products, Wenchuang products have lower infringement thresholds and lower infringement costs, but it is difficult to identify infringements, and the cost of rights protection is high, resulting in a small amount of copyright circulation, and the rights of creators and related institutions cannot be effectively protected. For the cultural and creative industry, the circulation of copyright often involves time elements, authorization elements, and some of the second and third re-creation elements after authorization. The blockchain can provide technical support for confirming the identity of the copyright subject, locking in the evidence of infringement, and meeting the copyright protection needs with low cost and high efficiency.
The blockchain system first “winds up” the copyrighted works, extracts the corresponding feature values of the copyrighted works according to the characteristics of the works, and then receives the copyright registration and notarization online by the National Copyright Protection Center. This is legally confirmed by the copyright owner. rights and interests. Through big data software such as web crawlers, once the copyright works are found to be infringed, the evidence is collected immediately, and the corresponding evidence is written on the blockchain for evidence locking and preservation, and then submitted to the National Copyright Protection Center for investigation.
Due to the characteristics of data tamper-proof, anti-counterfeiting, data traceability, permanent deposit, etc., the blockchain system can “on the chain” of copyright works, and can also “authorize the copyright owner’s owner and authorized party”. "Chain" records, which are effective for copyright registration, issuance, circulation, and transaction, and are also suitable for tracking of copyrights with multiple and complex features.
The fourth is the power industry.
The current power industry is in a period of rapid change. The emergence of renewable energy, the development of distributed energy, changes in energy storage methods and utilization methods, and the acceleration of energy digitization have all placed new demands on energy management methods. Blockchain technology provides new technical means to meet these new requirements in the power industry.
The point-to-point transaction characteristics of the blockchain system allow more power producers to sell electricity conveniently, which will make the global power supply more diversified and the grid supply and demand have greater flexibility.
Blockchain technology can also achieve higher transaction matching efficiency, energy settlement efficiency, and maximum transaction fairness. Wholesale trading of electricity through smart contracts minimizes reliance on intermediaries and balances supply and demand and more efficient power distribution in real time.
Blockchain transaction records are not tamper-proof and traceable, and can provide powerful regulatory measures for energy regulators to improve the regulatory level of the entire market. In addition, blockchain technology can be used to improve business efficiency and improve service levels, such as directly using shared energy measurement data to determine green card issuance, energy subsidies, etc., and reduce auditing.
The fifth is the logistics industry.
The logistics industry has the characteristics of dispersion and low transparency in the industry. By “winding up” logistics information, improving industry transparency and strengthening industry resource integration, not only can save time and cost, reduce risk and fraud, optimize resource utilization, compress intermediate links, improve overall industry efficiency, and because the logistics industry is supplying Chain management and supply chain finance are important joint points, and more industries can be connected and aggregated on a larger scale.
The blockchain system “winds up” key information such as shippers, drivers, and logistics behaviors. Not only can the cargo circulation information be tracked, but the abnormalities can be found and followed up to achieve tracking and accountability of the problem. The space for large compression logistics goods fraud. The combination of blockchain and big data technology can also improve the matching of drivers and commodity logistics, and further improve the efficiency of the logistics industry.
Based on the blockchain-based privacy protection technology, enterprise logistics information can be encrypted and stored, and only open to authorized users, which can eliminate enterprises' concerns about data security and privacy. In addition, the logistics information data stored in the blockchain is an important basis for insurance institutions to scientifically assess the level of insurance, insurance, and corporate insurance coverage, and also eliminates fraudulent behavior. The same data can also be used as a basis for assessing the comprehensive credit line of financial institutions. These behaviors give greater value and benefit to the authenticity of the data on the blockchain.
The sixth is the insurance industry.
Credit is the foundation of the insurance industry. However, the traditional "social trust" model has been difficult to adapt to the needs of social and economic development due to problems such as low cost of fraud, poor data storage, and difficulty in traceability of data. The application of blockchain technology can help improve the security of insurance business and ensure the consistency of data across the network.
At the same time, the use of blockchain technology can also help alleviate the contradiction of information asymmetry in the insurance industry. Insufficient trust between customers and insurance companies has always been an important issue that restricts the development of the insurance industry. Insurance companies have misleading sales, opaque insurance clauses, and difficult claims after the accident in the sales process of insurance products. Symmetrical fraud. Blockchain technology "digitalizes" digital contracts, customer information, and information related to insurance content, which reduces the asymmetry of information and plays a role in depositing evidence.
In addition, smart contracts in the blockchain help to increase the efficiency of the insurance industry. Smart contracts can support automated claims. When a claim problem occurs, the specific claim can be directly executed if the event is confirmed by the blockchain oracle function (into the data input blockchain through an external sensor) and the claim conditions are met. Terms, no human manipulation required.
It is difficult to "cover all diseases"
Of course, the blockchain can't "cover all the diseases", but it also has its drawbacks.
For example, at the technical level, high concurrency applications (by design to ensure that the system can process many requests simultaneously) are not suitable for direct use of blockchain systems, and big data systems and big data applications are not suitable for direct use of blockchain systems.
If the specific application is to take advantage of the blockchain and avoid its disadvantages, it needs to be adjusted on the system structure. For example, high-concurrency applications can be distributed and processed by means of fragmentation, such as big data systems. And big data applications can be placed under the "chain", just put the results of the operation on the "chain", you can receive the same effect.
At the business level, highly centralized services do not apply to blockchains, and applications with high levels of confidentiality do not apply to blockchains. A system with a high degree of centralization, if it is necessary to use the data of the blockchain system to be unforgeable and traceable, a private chain system can be established for a specific application.
For applications with high confidentiality, if you need to use the blockchain system, you must establish your own private chain or alliance chain. You must encrypt, encrypt, and authorize the entire process of data “winding up”.
The blockchain system provides an alternative framework for human social life that differs from traditional centralized organizations and centralized governance. How to make this information technology architecture better serve human social life depends not only on the progress of technology, but also on our understanding and imagination of the business.
Source: 23rd issue of Universal Magazine, November 13, 2019. Universal magazine authorized to use, other media need to reprint, please contact the magazine "Global"