Bitland has spent 700 million to buy Dash. Is it fancy?

文 | 黄雪姣 Edit | Lu Xiaoming

Raic, head of the Dash Chinese community, said that what Dash wants to do is never an anonymous currency, but a payment-type digital currency. Anonymity is just an optional feature.

Snowden, the two founders of Ethereum, V God and Gavin Wood… This year, the early "anonymous technology or privacy technology" has been recommended by more and more people, and LTC also decided to support MimbleWimble based on the side chain. Privacy transaction.

Hundreds of flowers also mean that competition has intensified, while exchanges such as the US, Japan and South Korea have successively removed anonymous coins. “Three Anonymous Coins” – Monero Monroe, ZCash Big Coin, and DASH Dash are in jeopardy.

Odaily Planet Daily mentioned in the previous article " Privacy is the future, but the privacy of the currency is not ", "In order to 'self-help', Dash Core CEO Ryan Taylor frequently voiced in the second half of this year to clarify that Private Send is only an option. One such transaction accounts for less than 1% of the Dash network. Ryan Taylor's argument has given Dash a chance to retry (such as OKEx Korea's announcement to temporarily stop Dash and Zcash's downline plan); but on the other hand Revealing the privacy option 'nearly used' situation."

However, Raico, head of the Dash Chinese community, said that Dash wanted to never do an anonymous coin, but a pay-as-you-go digital currency, Digital Cash, which is an optional feature.

This is not a momentary whimsy or a circumstance. From the process of its transformation, Dash has long since deviated from the scope of DarkCoin (dark coin, Dash's early name, metaphor of anonymity).

"Anonymous currency" that Wu Jihan looked at

Dash has a maximum currency price of $1,500 and a market value of $11.7 billion. It surpassed ETH in early 2017 and ranked second.

The reason for the soaring currency price at that time was rumored to be due to the fact that Bitcoin was in the layout. This news is indistinguishable, but according to the previously leaked Bitland pre-IPO investor documents, Bitcoin actually increased its holdings of 310,000 Dash in 2017, totaling $100 million.

Now, the market value of Dash has fallen by 95%. Fortunately, Dash is still ranked second in the segment of Anonymous Currency. The first is the Monroe coin that was born earlier.

Monroe defines itself as an “Untraceable Digital Money” and the anonymity is very radical – transaction information such as transaction addresses and amounts are hidden. ZCash is also the case, except that the Monroe currency transaction defaults to anonymous transactions, while ZCash can choose not to be anonymous.

Dash is instant payment by default, and anonymous payment is an option.

Dash uses a technology called "Coinjoin" to implement anonymous transactions. The technology mixes the coins belonging to different people (the lowest group of 3), splits them and then sends them, thus breaking the contact between the two parties.

The more rounds you mix, the more random the trade is split, the less likely it is to be tracked, and the better the anonymity.

As a more practical anonymous technology, Coinjoin is also used to enhance the anonymity of Bitcoin. However, Bitcoin is operated by paying a third-party coin service provider.

The use of mixed currency in Bitcoin is much more than Dash. Longhash data shows that as of April 2019, BTC transactions using Coinjoin were three times that of a year ago, accounting for 4% of all BTC transactions, far exceeding 1% of Dash.

Anonymous coins have long been firmly tied to dark nets and illegal transactions. Dash was originally marked by anonymity, which can be described as the "home of the family". Today, this image is obviously out of date.

The Dash community revealed that Wu Jihan had posted a message on Dash Github, and Dash's anonymity was “enough”, and the feature was not loved by the government.

What's more, from the history of Dash, anonymity may not be the most interesting place. Its budget system and two-tier network may be overlooked.

Bitcoin's frustration and the birth of Dash

Raico is one of Dash's earliest investors. Since its inception in 2014, it has been focusing on project development. From his perspective, we can see how Dash is formed.

According to Raico, he has been in contact with Bitcoin since 2011, has been involved in mining, speculating, trading, mining, etc., and often dive on bitcointalk in the Bitcoin enthusiast base camp.

2013 was the second big bull market for Bitcoin. Bitcoin rose 100 times in the same year, which stimulated many altcoins (competition coins). At the same time, the Bitcoin community has become a mixed bag: speculators, traders, exchanges, miners, bookmakers, etc., and various stakeholders are gathered in bitcointalk.

Raico felt that it was increasingly unclear who was the real beneficiary of the system and how it could really help make the system more prosperous. "The original plain forum has slowly changed its taste. The speech is not so free and open, and people with different opinions may attack each other."

At this point, Raico noticed a hot post from AltCoin Setion. "At the time, I accidentally clicked in. I was going to quit immediately, but the name Darkcoin is quite interesting. If there are many people who are hot on it, I will start to understand. I think this is life, haha."

The focus of Darkcoin's discussion at the time was how to add anonymity to Bitcoin, and then more and more proposals, such as how to effectively manage community voices, deal with differences, and so on.

"It discusses the problems encountered by Bitcoin. For example, the power of Bitcoin is integrated in the power, the incentives of the developers are insufficient, and the differences are hard to match. Compared to this, the new Darkcoin contains all the solutions. Ambition and hope." So, bitcoin believers like Raico turned to Dash.

Like many early Altcoins (competition coins, altcoins), Dash was created on the basis of Bitcoin code, but it differs slightly in terms of total tokens, mining mechanism, block rate, and reward distribution. As shown below:

Image from: Dash China Community

The difference is also formed during the development of Dash over the years. Compared to Bitcoin, Dash has two main differences.

One is the primary node network above the PoW miners network. The master node has four functions, providing rich currency services, instant payment, chain protection against 51% attacks, and community voting governance. The network uses the PoS mechanism to reach a consensus.

The second is a unique economic model/governance mechanism. 45% of the blocks were awarded to miners, 45% to the main node, and 10% to the “budget system DASH DAO”.

To this end, Raico believes that Dash's consensus mechanism should be Proof of Service instead of “PoW+PoS”, because the master node and the miners are all serving the network, and the simple holders cannot get the block rewards, and nodes must be built.

"Budget system" with 10% block rewards

Dash's decentralized autonomous organization DASH DAO, whose most important function, like its name "budget system", can extract 10% of the fee from block rewards, providing incentives and budgets for network development.

It is worth noting that ZCash also has a similar “trigger” model to fund the relevant operating companies. The narrative is not described here.

DASH DAO's budget funds can be applied by anyone, but there is a certain cost to submit the proposal. After that, the master node votes on the proposal, and the votes of the votes of the master node are 10% of the total number of the master nodes.

Image from: Dash China Community

Dash's development team, Dash Core Group (currently more than 20 official staff), also needs to submit monthly budget proposals to apply for funds, which can be seen as being employed by Dash, which is generally 50-60% of the monthly budget.

DASH DAO was originally developed to solve the incentive problem of developers and later evolved into an important governance model.

In 2015, Dash considered increasing the block capacity from 1MB to 2MB. After several months of community discussions, Dash Core Group created an expansion proposal in the network. DASH DAO completed the vote in one day and passed the plan.

Raico gave another example: I used to have a blockchain network Amanda on Youtube. Because I was optimistic about Dash, I took the initiative to apply for the official Dash account. The community disagreed and decided to vote on the budget system.

“Looking at the community will feel that most people support Amanda, but the results of the budget system vote show that most people disagree.” Raico said that there is a lot of silence in the community, but DASH DAO can reflect the decisions of the most stakeholders. .

How to do instant payment and anti-51% attack

Outside of the anonymity and budget system, Raico mentioned Dash's instant payment in 1 second.

How is this done? It is necessary to mention Dash's two-tier network.

For example, Alice asks the network to pay Bob an instant Dash. The Dash network randomly selects 30 (the specific quantity depends on the amount of money). The master node forms the legality of the long-term master node arbitration chain authentication transaction. After most nodes are authenticated, the transaction is locked and can be regarded as the account. At this point, Bob can already use this Dash.

The master then broadcasts the transaction to the entire network. Just like bitcoin accounting, the miner verifies the transaction and writes it to the latest block.

Real-time trading is realized by a randomly selected mechanism of the master node "first play after the game". Dash currently has more than 5,000 master nodes, plus each master node pledges 1000 Dash in the network as a margin, that is, an instant payment of millions of dollars as a guarantee. Raico believes that the main node will not do evil for a little benefit.

Resisting 51% of attacks relies on a "chain-lock" mechanism.

After the miner generates the block, the master node network will also randomly select 400 master nodes (timely online nodes) to generate Long-Living Masternode Quorums (LLMQs), and block the blocks according to the timestamp. Even though a large miner holding more than 51% of the network's computing power released a new block, the new chain, although the longest chain, did not have the LLMQs confirmation, which would be rejected by the network and abandoned.

The existence of the "chain lock" mechanism allows Dash to only need two block confirmations in Coinbase, only more than Algorand (1 time).

How far is Dash from “digital cash”?

How far is Dash today from becoming “digital cash”?

Let's look at a set of data from In the past 7 days, 20,000 people (actually active addresses) live on the Dash chain, which is 2.7 times that of Monroe and 5.7 times that of ZCash.

According to Raico, Dash's first two years were building infrastructure, and after 2016, the “Evolution” version was optimized to improve Dash adoption. The 2017 mobile wallet was born. The version that will be updated at the end of the year will display the encrypted address as a username.

He revealed that the second largest country in Dash's application is Venezuela, where inflation is severe. In 2018, Venezuela's legal currency Bolivar depreciated by 13,700 times, and in addition to the US dollar sanctions, Dash, which focuses on localized operations, has achieved good adoption rates locally.

In 2018, Dash Core Group and Dash Help Me (created specifically for Venezuela) teamed up with local low-end mobile phone maker Kriptomobile and built-in Dash wallet to enhance Dash adoption.

At the same time, there are a small amount of Dash in the built-in components to provide users with experience gold. At the same time, Dash integrates local merchants to let local people really use Dash, such as charging mobile phones. Dash Help Me also responded to the user's problems in detail as a customer service group.

As of early December, more than 60,000 mobile phone Kriptomobile phones flooded into the Latin American market. Among them, Venezuela accounted for 53,000 units, and the usage rate of Dash in these mobile phones reached 22%.

However, compared with more blockchain projects targeting “digital cash” and “world currency”, Dash still has a large gap. The BTC daily activity is 37.5 times that of Dash, the BSV is 12.4 times and the BCH is 2 times.

The 6-year Dash was born, and the journey is still very long.

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文 | 黄雪姣  编辑 | 卢晓明

出品 | Odaily星球日报(ID:o-daily)


斯诺登、以太坊的两位创始人 V神和 Gavin Wood……今年来,古早的“匿名技术或者隐私技术”被越来越多人力荐,LTC 也决定在侧链上支持基于 MimbleWimble 的隐私交易。


Odaily星球日报在此前文章《隐私是未来,但隐私币不是》中提到,“为了‘自救’,Dash Core 首席执行官 Ryan Taylor 于今年下半年频繁发声,澄清 Private Send(隐私交易)只是可选项之一,这类交易仅占 Dash 网络不到 1% 的交易。Ryan Taylor 的辩词,为 Dash 赢得了重审机会(如 OKEx Korea 宣布暂时停止 Dash 和 Zcash 的下线计划);但另一方面也透露出隐私选项‘几近无人用’的境遇。”

然而,Dash 中国社区的负责人 Raico 表示,Dash 想做的从来都不是匿名币,而是支付型数字货币、Digital Cash(数字现金),匿名不过是个可选的功能。

这并非一时的狂想或周旋之计。从其嬗变过程来看,Dash 早已超脱出 DarkCoin(暗黑币,Dash 的早期名称,暗喻匿名)的范畴。


Dash 最高币价 1500 美元,市值 117 亿美元,2017 年初超过 ETH、名列第二。

当时币价飙升的原因,传言称是因为比特大陆在布局。此消息真假难辨,但根据之前泄露的比特大陆 pre-IPO 投资者文件可以看到,比特大陆在 2017 年,确实增持了 31 万枚 Dash,合计 1 亿美元。


现在,Dash 市值已跌去了 95%。幸好,Dash 在匿名币这个细分领域中仍然位列第二,第一是更早诞生的门罗币。

门罗币将自己定义为一种“Untraceable Digital Money”,采取的匿名方式也十分激进——交易地址、金额等交易信息都被隐藏起来。ZCash 也如是,只不过,门罗币全网交易默认为匿名交易,而 ZCash 上可以选择不匿名。

Dash 在默认情况下是即时支付,匿名支付作为一个可选项。

Dash 采取一种名为“Coinjoin(混币)”的技术来实现匿名交易。该技术把属于不同人的币(最低 3 笔一组)混在一起,拆分后再发送,从而割裂了交易双方的联系。



作为一项较为实用的匿名技术,Coinjoin 也被用来增强比特币的匿名性。只不过,比特币是通过付费给第三方混币服务商操作。

比特币中混币的使用,远比 Dash 要多。Longhash 数据显示,截至 2019 年 4 月,使用 Coinjoin 的 BTC 交易为一年前的三倍,占全部BTC交易的 4%,远超 Dash 中的 1%。

匿名币早已和暗网、非法交易牢牢绑定,Dash 最初以匿名性作为标志,可谓“发家之本”,如今这种形象明显已经不合时宜。

Dash 社区透露,吴忌寒曾在 Dash Github 上留言,Dash 的匿名程度已经“够用”,而且该功能并不被政府喜爱。

何况,从 Dash 发展历史来看,匿名可能并非它最有趣的地方。其预算系统和双层网络可能被忽略了。


Raico 是 Dash 最早的投资者之一,自其上线之初的 2014 年就开始关注项目发展,我们可通过他的视角来看,Dash 是如何形成。

据 Raico 介绍,他自 2011 年开始接触比特币,参与过挖矿、炒币、买卖矿机等,也经常在比特币爱好者大本营 bitcointalk 上潜水。

2013 年是比特币的第二次大牛市,比特币在当年上涨整整 100 倍,由此刺激诸多山寨币(竞争币)相继出现。与此同时,比特币社区也变得鱼龙混杂:投机者、交易员、交易所、矿工、庄家等,各个利益相关者聚于 bitcointalk。

Raico 感到,越来越分不清谁是这个系统真正的受益者,也不知道如何决策才能真正助益这个系统更加繁荣。“原本朴素的论坛,慢慢地就变味了,言论没那么自由开放,言论不同的人之间可能会互相攻击。”

此时,Raico 注意到 AltCoin Setion 一篇热帖。“当时是不小心点进去的,本来打算马上退出来,但 Darkcoin 这名字还挺有意思的,再看还有很多人在上面热议,就开始了解了。我想这就是命吧,哈哈。”

Darkcoin 当时讨论的重心,先是如何在比特币的基础上增加匿名性,然后提议越来越多,比如讲到 Darkcoin 要如何有效管理社区声音、应对分歧等等。

“它讨论了比特币遇到的种种问题,比如比特币的权力都融汇在算力上、开发者的激励不足、分歧也难以磨合……相比这下,新生的 Darkcoin 蕴含着解决这一切的野心和希望。”于是,像 Raico 这样的比特币信仰者,转而参与 Dash。

像很多早期的 Altcoin(竞争币、山寨币)那样,Dash 是在比特币代码的基础上创建的,但在代币总量、开采机制、出块速度、奖励分配等方面略有不同。如下图:



个中差异,也是在 Dash 经年累月的发展中形成。相比于比特币,Dash 主要有两点不同。

其一是 PoW 矿工网络之上的主节点网络。主节点有四大职能,提供混币服务、即时支付、抵御 51% 攻击的链锁和社区投票治理。该网络使用 PoS 机制达成共识。

其二是独特的经济模型/治理机制。45% 区块奖励给矿工、45% 给主节点,另外 10% 给了“预算系统 DASH DAO”。

为此,Raico 认为,Dash 的共识机制应该是 Proof of Service 而非“PoW+PoS”,因为主节点和矿工都在为网络提供服务,单纯的持币者无法获得区块奖励,必须建节点。


Dash 的去中心化自治组织 DASH DAO,它最重要的功能正如其名“预算系统”一样,能从区块奖励中抽取 10% 的费用,为网络发展提供激励和预算。

值得注意的是,ZCash 也有类似的“抽佣”模式,将资金给到相关运营公司。在此不展开叙述。

DASH DAO 的预算资金任何人都可以申请,只不过提交议案有一定成本。此后主节点对提案投票,赞成票-反对票>主节点总量的 10% 即可通过。



Dash 的开发团队 Dash Core Group(目前正式职员 20 余位),也需每月提交预算提案申请资金,可看做受雇于 Dash,一般每月可获得预算的 50-60%。

DASH DAO 最早主要为了解决开发者的激励问题,后来演变成重要的治理模式。

2015 年,Dash 考虑将区块容量从 1MB 增加至 2MB,社区数月讨论后,Dash Core Group 在网络中创建了一项扩容提案。DASH DAO 用了 1 天就完成投票,通过了方案。

Raico 举了另一例子:之前有一位 Youtube 上的区块链网红 Amanda,因为看好 Dash,主动申请管理 Dash 的官方账号。社群为此意见不一,最终决定上预算系统投票。

“看社区发言会觉得大部分人支持 Amanda,但预算系统投票结果显示大部分人不同意。”Raico 表示,社区发言中有大量沉默的大多数,但 DASH DAO 则能反映最利益相关者的决策。


匿名与预算系统之外,Raico 提到了 Dash 1 秒到账的即时支付。

这是如何做到的?就要提到 Dash 的双层网络。

譬如,Alice 向网络请求向 Bob 即时支付 1 枚 Dash。Dash 网络会随机选择 30 个(具体数量视金额大小而定)主节点形成长效主节点仲裁链认证交易合法性,多数节点认证后该笔交易就被锁定,可视为到账了。此时,Bob 已经可以使用这枚 Dash 了。


通过随机选出的主节点“先斩后奏”的机制,实现即时交易。Dash 的主节点目前有 5000 余个,加上每个主节点均在网络中质押了 1000 Dash 作为保证金,也即一笔即时支付有百万美元资金作为担保。Raico 相信,主节点不会为一点利益作恶。

抵抗 51% 攻击,则依靠“链锁”机制。

在矿工产生区块后,主节点网络还将随机选择 400 个主节点(时常在线的节点)生成长效仲裁链(Long-Living Masternode Quorums,LLMQs),对区块按照时间戳进行锁定。即便后来某位持有网络超过 51% 算力的大矿工释放出新区块,新链虽然是最长链,但其却无 LLMQs 的确认,由此将被网络拒绝,从而抛弃。

“链锁”机制的存在,使 Dash 在 Coinbase 提币只需两次区块确认,仅多于 Algorand(1 次)。


如今的 Dash,离成为“数字现金”有多远?

先来看 的一组数据,过去 7 天,Dash 链上日活 2 万人(实际上是活跃地址),是门罗币的 2.7 倍、ZCash 的 5.7 倍。

据 Raico 介绍,Dash 的前两年是在做基础设施的搭建,2016 年之后便是优化“Evolution”版本,旨在提升 Dash 的采用率。2017 年手机钱包诞生。年底即将更新的版本,会将加密地址以用户名的形式展现。

他透露,Dash 应用最广的第二大国家是通胀严重的委内瑞拉。2018 年,委内瑞拉的法币玻利瓦尔贬值了 1.37 万倍,加之面临美元制裁,因此,注重本地化运营的 Dash 在当地获得了不错的采用率。

2018 年,Dash Core Group 和 Dash Help Me(为委内瑞拉专门成立)合作,联合当地中低端手机厂商 Kriptomobile,内置 Dash 钱包等组件,以提升 Dash 的采用率。

同时,内置的组件内还有少量 Dash 提供给用户作为体验金,同时 Dash 也整合了当地商户让本地人真正将 Dash 用起来,如可以给手机充话费等。Dash Help Me还作为客服组详细回答了用户遇到的问题。

截至 12 月初 ,随着 6 万多部手机 Kriptomobile 手机涌入拉美市场。其中,委内瑞拉占了 53000 台,这些手机中 Dash 的使用率达 22%。

然而,和更多定位于“数字现金”“世界货币”的区块链项目相比,Dash 仍差距较大。BTC 日活是 Dash 的37.5倍,BSV 是它的 12.4 倍、BCH 是它的 2 倍。

诞生了 6 年的 Dash,征途还很长。
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