The track of the public chain is already full of competitors. At present, it is still an era of wild development. Most of the public chains are comprehensive public chains, and the future public chain will eventually cut into the subdivision. Therefore, I believe that the future of the blockchain world must be a multi-chain pattern. There will be several large public chains and countless small public chains, as well as alliance chains and private chains. With more chains, there is a need for communication.
I often refer to the public chain as an independent "state". The token of the public chain is the legal currency of this "state". The language of the public chain is the legal language of this country. Before the emergence of the cross-chain, each country is independent, self-sufficient, and does not communicate with other "states", which can be understood as "closed locks." Every country is a closed system, separated from each other, forming an "island" of information.
1. The strongest track
Cross-chaining is to build connected bridges on an isolated island, so that all public chains, alliance chains, and private chains are connected. There is a metaphor that is very interesting: in the past, telecommunications could only make calls to telecommunications. Unicom could only call Unicom. Cross-chaining was to allow Telecom, China Unicom and Mobile to call each other.
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So the cross-chain essentially solves the problem of "communication." To achieve "communication" between chains and chains, we need to address the transfer of value and the interaction of information.
What is the transfer of value? The currency you use in China is the renminbi. You can go to the US now and only use the US dollar. You need to change the RMB in your hand to US dollars. In the blockchain, in Ethereum, the currency is used as the token, and in EOS, the grapefruit currency is used as the token. To access EOS from Ethereum, you need to exchange Ethereum for grapefruit. This is the transfer of value, you can understand it as "exchange."
What is the interaction of information? In China, everyone communicates in Chinese. In the United States, everyone communicates in English. From China to the United States, you speak Chinese, people don't understand, then you need a "translation" to achieve communication and communication. Cross-chain communication is to solve the problem of information transmission between different systems and different languages, and to play a bridge of communication in the middle.
In summary, the cross-chain solution is the communication problem between the public chains. So how big is this track compared to the public chain?
In the Internet world, we believe that the value of LAN is limited, and the value of the WAN is unlimited.
The value of the network depends on the number of users connected to the network, that is, the more users are connected, the greater the value of the network, the greater the need for networking.
According to this, Metcalf gives the value calculation formula of the network V=K×N2; (K is the value coefficient, N is the number of users.) This is the law of Mehs.
The number of users in a single public chain is limited, and cross-chaining is equivalent to connecting all users of the public chain. According to Mei's law, its value naturally rises in geometric progression. The value of the cross-chain is not only equal to the sum of all the values of the public chain, but is much larger than this value.
In terms of the maximum value of the public chain, the value of the cross-chain may be a hundred times or more than a thousand times. Don't think it's a bit exaggerated, I even feel a bit underestimated.
He said that in the next three and a half years, there will be a large single public chain with a market capitalization of more than 1 trillion US dollars. What is the biggest cross-chain value?
2.Gavin Wood is in town
There is a good project that must have a strong founder. Xu Xiaoping said: The soul of angel investment is to vote. Venture capitalists generally believe that investment philosophy is the founder of investment, that is, "investment." First-rate talents can make second-rate projects first-class. Second-rate talents may also make first-class projects into slag. So many people come to the currency, but in fact, it is awkward.
In the blockchain industry, we also see the importance of the founder of Niu, who is in Bitcoin, V God in Ethereum, and DM in EOS. Of course, you will hear later, Wood is in Boca.
Let me introduce the man: Gavin Wood, co-founder of Ethereum, founder of Ethereum client Parity, founder of Polkadot, and founder of Web3 Foundation.
He was called the invisible brain of Ethereum. After he joined, the technical realization of Ethereum was on the right track and laid the technical cornerstone of Ethereum.
Wood claims to be a highly skilled craftsman. He said that code is a passion, an art form. When I heard this, I thought of a great artist who was creating a great work. He is such an artist and a craftsman. He said that we are creating new, amazing and elegant solutions every day. Elegance, the word, I hit the emphatic, full of idealistic colors.
A savvy founder must not only have great ideas, advanced technical skills, but also an inclusive mindset. With a broad mind and a tolerant mentality, when you encounter an error, you will admit your mistake and take the initiative to correct the mistake.
If there is a more advanced consensus mechanism, he will not hesitate to replace Pos. If it turns out that the COSMOS dual-coin model works really well, he will consider upgrading Polkadot's economic model.
As long as your things are good, I will learn from you and take your things. Only use the best, you cow, I will use yours. This will always keep the advanced nature of your project.
Many people say that Cosmos and Polkadot are competitive. In fact, I feel that these two are good "friends". The two teams are learning from each other, helping each other and moving forward together. This is also the ideal of technical punk, just to create better projects, not to prove that my project is the best.
3. Technical design
The Polkadot network is a scalable heterogeneous multi-chain system designed to design a scalable blockchain network. It has two major characteristics: one is shared security, all parallel chains Parachain share certifiers; the second is cross-chain interaction capabilities.
Polkadot's heterogeneous multi-chain architecture
The Polkadot network consists of a relay chain Relay chain and multiple parallel chains Parachain, and Bridge.
Relay-chain: The main chain of the Polkadot network, which is the central hub, which is the white polygon in the middle of the above figure.
Parachains: There are a large number of verifiable, globally dependent dynamic data structures on the main chain. The small circles on the sides of the polygon above represent parallel chains.
Parachain bridge: Bridges can be linked to other existing public chains, such as Ethereum. Connect the bridge of Ethereum below the picture below.
At the same time, the level 1 relay chain can also be extended to a level 2 relay chain, which is the pink part on the right side of the above figure. The level 2 relay chain can also have its own parallel chain, so that the infinite expansion of the relay chain can be realized.
The four main characters in the Polkadot network
The Polkadot network consists of four main characters: collectors, verifiers, nominees, and anglers.
Collator: The “miner” of the sub-chain, collecting the transactions of the sub-chain users, assembling the blocks.
Validator: The "miner" of the Polkadot chain. It is worth noting that the sub-chain of Polkadot, although assembled by the Collator block, is still subject to consensus by the partial Validator.
Nominator: Nominee for Validator. Simply think of the Nominator as a Validator (if Nominator nominates himself).
Fisher (mane rman): Monitors whether the various roles in the network are working properly.