Author: Wang Jinjing
Source: People's Political Consultative Conference
Blockchain technology is hailed as one of the representative achievements of the fourth industrial revolution. "The core technology with the greatest potential to trigger the fifth wave of disruptive revolution" represents the future of the Internet and has epoch-making significance. It is considered to be a revolutionary information technology breakthrough similar to the personal computer of 1975 and the Internet of 1993.
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At present, blockchain is becoming the frontier of global technology development. The application of blockchain technology covers digital finance, the Internet of Things, intelligent manufacturing, supply chain management, digital asset trading and other fields. Blockchain technology development. After the United Kingdom, Germany and other countries raised the blockchain as a national development strategy, the emphasis on blockchain technology in China has also risen to an unprecedented level. A few days ago, the Deshengmen Lecture Hall of the National Federation of Industry and Commerce went to Fuzhou and gathered a number of industry experts to discuss "Blockchain and Innovation-Promoting the Development of Digital China with Blockchain Technology".
Imagine a scenario in which when you go to the hospital for treatment, you no longer need to repeatedly communicate your past medical history with different doctors, and the doctors know everything about you through the Internet, perhaps more clearly than you. What kind of illness did you have, what surgery did you have, what history of allergies, what tests have you done recently … Some tests no longer need to be repeated, the doctor only needs to diagnose and treat you according to his own judgment. These records will not be lost, stolen, or tampered with, so long as you have your authorization, you can access them anytime, anywhere. This is just a small application of blockchain in the medical field.
The application field of blockchain is far more than just various digital currencies. Within the scope of security and control, blockchain technology will bring more convenience to our lives in China.
Blockchain is a super database
Blockchain is a collection of technologies based on Internet applications. It reconstructs the trust relationship between people through the power of technology, which will affect all aspects of our lives.
OK Group founder Xu Mingxing said that blockchain is simply a technology for storing data. Internet databases will iterate at regular intervals and develop into blockchains through search databases and relational databases. Blockchain is a database that is built on a peer-to-peer network.
What is called peer-to-peer? Let's talk briefly. For example, everyone in this conference room is connected to WiFi, the conference room's WiFi is connected to the regional WiFi, and finally to the city's backbone network. The intermediate Internet is a distributed database, and many central databases are connected through the backbone network. This kind of database is very powerful, and one area is cut off, and other areas are not affected. The underlying network communication technology is powerful, the bandwidth cost is reduced, and the communication efficiency is very high, which is the basis for the existence of such a database.
What is stored on this peer-to-peer network? The blockchain is called Blockchain in English, which can be translated into an account book. Chain is a chain, connected together, like a bank owner who keeps an account every hour or every day, and uses a line to string these accounts every night.
The blockchain is on a point-to-point network. It generates a snapshot of the data records at regular intervals. The entire data snapshot is connected through data retrieval technology to form a Blockchain. Here you can see that the transaction details are stored, so the early blockchain was a database that stored all transaction details on the peer-to-peer network.
So what is the core of the blockchain? Wang Wei, the founding chairman of the China Mergers and Acquisitions Association and the chairman of the China Financial Museum, believes that the technical solution to the interconnection, trust and transactions between people is the core of the blockchain.
He explained that human civilization originated in trust. If there is no trust between people, there will not be industry and commerce and today's civilized society. The double-entry bookkeeping method that appeared 500 years ago created a business and social foundation. The 2008 subprime crisis was a big shock. Everyone began to look for models to re-establish trust genes. After hard work, a group of technical geeks completed new trust mechanisms point-to-point through encryption algorithm techniques such as distributed accounting and immutability.
What are the difficulties in building a blockchain? Ren Kai, executive director of China Blockchain Application Research Center, said that blockchain is divided into two layers: the first layer is the underlying public chain layer, and the second layer is the application layer. When many people discuss the application, they forget the public chain layer. Bitcoin can be trusted and immutable. Through a set of algorithms and digital technologies, when we explore other blockchains, when we build the underlying public chain layer, Encountered great difficulties.
Digital identity and trusted blockchain construction
With the continuous maturity of blockchain technology, we just talked about storage and accounting on a point-to-point network, but now the blockchain has more than just accounting. It can store programs and logic. We call it smart contracts. Xu Mingxing made an analogy, for example, we wanted to find an individual to write an article according to the agreed manuscript fee. And the author has concerns, the article is written, what should the employer do not give money. Now when we encounter this situation, we will find an agent, squeeze the money to him, and finally pay the manuscript fee.
If this intermediary is unreliable, or if the intermediary intervenes and charges a fee, it will cause inconvenience to the transaction between the two parties. So, today we can compose a smart contract on the blockchain network, agree on how far this article has progressed, and automatically transfer the money to the author.
This program is no longer running on the server of a certain company, it is operating on the entire point-to-point network. Before the demand is initiated, the money is automatically locked in the smart contract. At this time, the smart contract does not belong to anyone. This smart contract has both the ability to sign the contract and the court, because he is a "technical court" and can Automate the terms of a contract.
The main body behind the network is people. In order to apply blockchain technology more securely, Deng Di, director of the Blockchain Special Committee of the National Federation of Industry and Commerce Mergers and Acquisitions Association and chairman of Taiyi Cloud Technology Co., Ltd. has been committed to the research of trusted blockchains. Dundee said that when the concept was introduced in 2015, the industry knew very little about this. But today the standard of trusted blockchains has become one of the largest blockchain standards in China.
Dundee believes that a very important point of a trusted blockchain is that the underlying identity must be trusted. First, if people are true, then the correspondence between people and data is true. In the third step, we can guarantee that its data is also true.
So Dundee puts digital identity applications in a very important position. He said that digital identity can ensure that the underlying identity of the blockchain is trustworthy and protect personal privacy. It is a basic chain that can serve Chinese society.
Deng Di introduced that starting from a digital identity, blockchain application scenarios include account login, confirmation of personal data, privacy protection, personal certificates, personal points, private domain space, and national digital currency. At present, under the guidance and support of the government and expert teams, the three major platforms of the digital identity economy should be accelerated — contract registration platform, data confirmation platform, and points exchange platform, and marketization should be actively promoted to realize the digital identity economy industry. Healthy and orderly development.
What can the blockchain do without touching the coin
Everyone is particularly concerned about the application scenarios of the blockchain. The Beijing Financial Bureau proposes a currencyless blockchain.
Wang Wei believes: "Not necessarily. A large number of young people with excellent minds have not allowed to touch coins in the past two years, but have created a lot of non-currency blockchain applications."
Guo Yuhang, Director of Psychology in China's Blockchain Research, introduced his practice in the field of justice, how to bring evidence to the chain, and how to reduce litigation costs in the judicial system. He said that the current evidence certification uses a large number of third-party inspection centers, which is time-consuming and labor-intensive, especially in the case of small economic litigation. The dispute of 500 yuan requires three judges to spend half a day in court to operate. This is a social resource. Great waste. Through smart contracts on the blockchain, we can automatically execute disputes between small amounts of economic behavior, which can reduce the cost of the entire society.
Dundee said that there are a lot of blockchain companies in China now providing various technical services. However, we found that the non-currency blockchain needs a public infrastructure in order to maximize its value. Otherwise, it is just an instrumental application and cannot be turned into a disruptive application. To turn a blockchain into a disruptive application, we first need a public channel for data exchange. We hope that the digital identity chain can become such a channel. Now, all kinds of big data, such as government public data, corporate credit data, personal credit data, and Internet of Things data, can apply digital identity as a platform for data exchange.
Lin Duanxiong, deputy director of the Fuzhou Industry and Information Technology Bureau and director of the office of the Fuzhou Leading Group to Accelerate the Development of Blockchain, said, "In fact, when we were building the Fuzhou Blockchain Comprehensive Experimental Zone, we considered some application scenarios at that time. Including finance, because the blockchain is a natural fit with finance. Then the credit system is established. In fact, we are already experimenting. This integrity includes personal integrity and the integrity of small and medium-sized enterprises. The blockchain is not tamperable. It is also very meaningful to apply it to public management to let the data run more and the common people run less errands. We are also conducting trials in this regard. "
Improve the market and the rule of law to promote the development of blockchain innovation
The future of the blockchain makes people look forward to and makes people imaginative. Chen Zhaohui, Dean of Wanwei Blockchain Research Institute and Chairman of Fujian Wanwei Blockchain Technology Co., Ltd. said: "I think the application of blockchain actually requires extraordinary imagination, it is a future world. For example It will lead to changes in the company or social organization, and it is more convenient for everyone to come in and out; distribution can be achieved more reasonably through the use of blockchain technology, or there is the possibility of larger-scale human collaboration. "
The application of blockchain in industrial manufacturing is expected, such as intelligent manufacturing and flexible manufacturing. In fact, blockchain technology can enable everyone to trust data and work together in different units. This is one aspect.
In the second aspect, in terms of social governance, in fact, from the point of view of blockchain technology, many people discuss 2B and 2C, and Chen Zhaohui thinks it may be 2G (government). "Because the use of government to improve and manage social governance, Enabling society to function effectively. "
Wang Wei clearly stated that marketization and rule of law are the core competitiveness to promote the innovation and development of blockchain technology. "If this innovation has been driven by the government, it will not form a long-term development momentum. To rule by law and standardize, the most important thing is that entrepreneurs must have expectations and expectations, and they must not change quickly."
Xu Mingxing believes that decentralization of the blockchain is actually a misunderstanding. He has made no barriers between the rule makers and the lowest-level rule implementers, and all intermediate links have become service links without the ability to discount.
Today's blockchain is for governments and regulators. If you want to apply a certain rule, such as poverty alleviation, without any compromise, it is a very good technology. Its centerpiece It is the designer of this rule. So it is wrong to say that the blockchain has no center. In today's blockchain technology, first the rule designer is his center, and then it is possible to design some super nodes, and the regulatory agency or the country can have some verification rights.
"For example, our company is working with U.S. regulators to issue USD stablecoins. In fact, it is not completely decentralized. The U.S. anti-money laundering agency requires us to provide a super private key to stop any amount of money at any time. This transaction can be stopped. So this blockchain is peer-to-peer in a wider range of applications, but the regulatory capabilities provided to regulators are technically without any problems now. "