Blockchain technology is increasingly valued and considered as a potential governance tool due to its openness, transparency, security, autonomy, and decentralization. On October 24, 2019, General Secretary Xi Jinping emphasized during the eighteenth collective study of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee that "the blockchain should be used as an important breakthrough in independent innovation of core technologies." The application scenarios of blockchain technology in national governance are very extensive, including education, employment, retirement, poverty alleviation, medical care, commodity security, food safety, public welfare, social assistance and other public affairs fields, and in improving the party's political construction, It has played an important role in strengthening the organization and management of party members and intensifying the construction of party style and a clean government.
Focusing on the application of blockchain technology in public affairs and party building, Professor Qian Zaijian of Nanjing Normal University wrote an in-depth analysis and interpretation. We extract the core ideas.
Transparent governance function of blockchain technology in public affairs
Public affairs is the so-called "people's affairs". The diversified trend of public demand and preference for public goods and services determines the broadness of public affairs content, the diversity of subjects, the diversity of methods, and the complexity of supervision. The transparent governance function of blockchain technology in public affairs is mainly reflected in the use of blockchain technology to promote public affairs data sharing, realize open governance of public affairs, and implement government supervision of public affairs.
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1. Promote public affairs data sharing with the help of blockchain technology
The supply of public goods and services in public affairs is inseparable from the supply of public information and the sharing of public data.
Because blockchain technology can ensure the transparency, immutability and traceability of information, it can be widely used in education, employment, pension, precision poverty alleviation, medical health, commodity security, food safety, public welfare, social assistance and other public affairs fields . Blockchain data information sharing mode is helpful to realize the cross-department and cross-region common maintenance and utilization of government affairs data, promote the coordinated management of public affairs, and improve the efficiency and quality of government services.
2. Relying on blockchain technology to achieve open governance of public affairs
Public participation based on data openness and information sharing is the essence of governance. Without the authenticity and effectiveness of public participation, all power sharing, democratic supervision, and public accountability are virtually impossible to talk about.
Freya Hill Hardwick, University of London, and others believe that "open governance" means encouraging and promoting openness, accountability, and responding to people's concerns; technologies such as the Internet are important to open governance The success of the initiative is critical; these technologies enable better access to data and participation between citizens and governments, while blockchain and smart contracts and other technologies can be used to help open governance.
For example, the application of blockchain technology in the fields of information infrastructure, smart transportation, energy and power, etc., can improve the level of informationization, digitization and intelligence of city management, and promote more information, capital, talent, and credit information among cities. Large-scale interconnection and open governance.
3. Implementing government supervision of public affairs around blockchain technology
In addition to economic management, social management and public services, the government's main functions also include market supervision.
Blockchain technology can be applied to the supervision of special funds for poverty alleviation in government governance and public affairs, property rights registration in the housing management department, intellectual property protection in the cultural department, education management of academic information and academic achievements, and taxation tax certification The specific administrative affairs such as reducing costs and improving efficiency of auditing departments, traceability of product anti-counterfeiting of food and drug supervision departments, electronic bill verification of financial and taxation departments, risk prevention and control of financial supervision departments, and prior supervision.
However, it is human beings who apply the "neutral" blockchain technology. Even if they are in virtual scenes, it cannot be ruled out similar to the WannaCry ransomware incident that broke out in May 2017 and the Ethereum digital currency that broke out in June 2016 Smart contract code vulnerabilities led to the theft of 3.6 million ETH (about 5-6 billion yen). Therefore, the blockchain also needs to solve the problem of "who oversees regulators".
Application of Blockchain Technology in Party Construction
In the information age, the deep integration of digitization, networking, and intelligence is widely used in all walks of life. Party building also requires the introduction of blockchain and other information technology to innovate party building work methods and methods, and improve the party's political building efficiency. Strengthen the effectiveness of party organization management and increase the construction of party style and clean government, so that the institutional advantages in party building can be better translated into the effectiveness of national governance.
1.Introduce blockchain technology to improve the effectiveness of the party's political construction
Upholding and strengthening the party's overall leadership is the fundamental guarantee for the CPC to advance its own construction and state governance. The party's overall leadership also includes leadership in applying new blockchain technology to the national economy and people's livelihood, as well as leadership in using the blockchain technology to strengthen the party's own construction.
The characteristics of distributed bookkeeping, encryption, and open sharing of blockchain technology make this technology achieve full coverage of party members' ideological and political learning and education activities in the political and ideological construction work, especially in the theme education of “do not forget the original heart and keep in mind the mission”. Quickly implement real-time management functions such as basic information of party members, party branch work, party lesson learning, and interactive communication among party members, and can effectively grasp the status and problems of political ideological work in a timely manner through efficient calculation of massive data, so as to provide a basis for decision-making in improving party building work.
On October 26th, the first "party building + blockchain" product "People's Heart on the Chain" produced by People's Daily was officially launched on the Chinese Communist Party News Network. It can make the party's construction through the precise and intelligent characteristics of the intelligent network system. The work is more targeted, which not only improves the efficiency of party building work, but also gives full play to the political advantages of party building work, and better transforms the results of party political building into the effectiveness of state governance.
2. Borrowing blockchain technology to strengthen the effectiveness of party organization management
Statistics show that as of December 31, 2018, the total number of members of the Communist Party of China was 90.594 million. Such a huge amount of data was scattered and registered in databases across the country. Because the development of party members has the characteristics of dynamic changes and liquidity in different places, it is difficult to ensure the accuracy and real-time consistency of the statistics of the number of party members.
Based on the technical characteristics of the "reliable database, immutable, transparent and decentralized transactions" of the blockchain, all information of all party members will be registered and stored on the blockchain to form a unified national data operation platform, which can guarantee the number of party members The accuracy, completeness, and real-time nature of statistics can also be based on the openness and non-tamperability of blockchain data to ensure the authenticity and validity of all data, and optimize and resolve issues such as trust and data.
At the same time, the unified data operation platform on the blockchain can also trace the identity information of party members and the payment of party fees, and trace the records of party members' participation in party organization life meetings, which is conducive to strengthening the organization and management of party members, strengthening party awareness Consciousness and organizational concepts, always restrain yourself with the party charter, party rules and discipline, consciously obey the organization and management, and create a good political ecology.
3. Strengthen the construction of party style and clean government based on blockchain technology
First of all, blockchain technology achieves data transparency, openness, and verifiability and traceability through time stamps. It can be used to further advance the party's work style and clean government and fight against corruption, and punish corruption with zero tolerance. Build a system and mechanism that promotes courage, corruption, and corruption.
Secondly, the trust mechanism of blockchain technology can be applied in party building. In essence, blockchain and law are trust mechanisms, but no matter what the situation is, trust cannot replace supervision. "Incorrect moments cannot be square; irregular rules cannot be round."
Network law scholars such as Lawrence Lessig, Kevin Werbach and others believe that blockchain system software may seem to hinder the implementation of traditional laws, but its rules operate in a similar way to the legal system, that is, "trust, but requires verification" . General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out, "It is necessary to strengthen restrictions and supervision on the operation of power, let the people supervise power, let power operate in the sun, and lock power into the cage of the system." If the blockchain technology is used properly, it can make the "cage of institutions" denser and stronger in party building.
Finally, blockchain technology can help audit supervision and promote the construction of party style and clean government. Audit supervision, as one of the institutional pillars of the national integrity system, is an important part of the national governance system. Blockchain technology will play a significant role in audit supervision, especially financial audit, due to its distributed ledger, traceability, and cryptographic security features, and will have a disruptive effect on national audits.
For example, applying blockchain technology and its expanded functions in audit supervision can establish a public “big account book” of financial big data that is open and transparent and data sharing, build and improve a social credit system, expand and improve audit information acquisition channels, and acquire them in a timely manner. It has objective authenticity, traceability, and non-tamperable audit evidence, promotes internal control of financial institutions, reduces fraud risks, and enables real-time auditing.
Article source: "National Governance Weekly" WeChat public account
Original title: "Following | The Practical Application of Blockchain in National Governance and Public Affairs"