In the previous article, "How will the blockchain technology transform the "big move to cloud" system? At the end of (I ) , the author left a question, which is what role the blockchain should play in a seemingly complete digital economic system. Before you can formally answer it, you first need to understand the specific principles of blockchain technology. As mentioned in many sources, a blockchain is a chained database that is commonly recorded and governed by multiple stakeholders (often referred to as "accounting nodes", referred to as nodes). Information is recorded in the area called In the data packet of the block, according to the setting of the system, the accounting nodes will follow certain rules (known in the industry as “consensus mechanism”) to obtain the packaging right of each block, that is, the relevant in the blockchain network. The information is recorded to the right in the block, and at the moment of recording, other nodes that have not obtained the package right of the block will also record the data of the block chain in their own devices. Simply put, "one person writes, "The whole family of storage", compared with the centralized traditional database belonging to the same interest group, this distributed new database has one of the most obvious features: that is, the data written on it is distributed in the hands of different stakeholders, so it is extremely difficult Tampering, unless the tamper can persuade a certain percentage of the accounting nodes to help them modify the data. Because of this feature, the blockchain is often referred to as the "trust machine", which means that two unidentified stakeholders can quickly determine whether the other party is trustworthy by observing the past behavior record of the other party. In addition, since the blockchain uses a variety of encryption technologies, it often appears in various privacy protection scenarios, and this is also the key to its contribution to the development of the digital economy.
I still turn my attention back to the digital economy. In the last part of the series, I mentioned to you that the goal of the digital economy is to give users more rights. The means to achieve this goal is to enable computer-based machine systems to provide more services to users as a personal secretary. The specific technical principle is similar to the human nervous system "object-large-shift-cloud – Smart combination. However, from the reality, the current machine system often has no way to provide good feedback on the user's behavior. If people can't respond to external changes in time, it is often due to nerve break, slow response, weak analytical ability, etc. The reason why the signal can not be converted into specific behavior, then the machine system can not effectively respond to the user's needs, but also because the data can not be converted into a solution through smooth circulation. In this respect, the human body system and the mechanical system can be said to have similarities. of.
However, why are there more cases where the data signal is not flowing smoothly in the machine system compared with the human system? The specific reasons can be roughly summarized into two aspects: channel [Note] and trust.
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[Note] The so-called channel, as the name implies, refers to the communication channel, which refers to the medium of signal transmission. This article refers to all the links related to data circulation in the digital system, such as intelligent terminals that collect data, communication networks that transmit data, A cloud platform that stores and calculates data, and so on.
First of all, in terms of channels, humans have undergone a long history of development. Organs such as terminal terminals, neural networks, and brains have been relatively mature and mature, and there is no signal blocking problem. The concept of digital economy has just started, and the relevant infrastructure is not yet available. Very complete, many times there is a problem with the channel transmission of data. For example, the data collected cannot be collected, and the collected data can not be analyzed. So naturally, there is no way to give a solution.
Secondly, in terms of trust, in the human body system, all kinds of organs belong to the same individual, listen to the same brain command, and there is no question of whether or not they trust each other. In the machine system, the producers and collectors of the data, Analysts often belong to different stakeholders, and there is a huge cost of trust between them. It is easy to be jealous of each other. For example, if you suspect that the other party is reliable, will you take your own data assets to do evil, so that Related collaborations are also difficult to smooth.
In summary, if people want to improve the existing machine system, so that the digital economy can give users more rights, the direction of improvement is nothing more than the following two aspects:
First, improve the reliability of the channel, so that the user's behavior information can be collected, transmitted, and analyzed more comprehensively, accurately, and quickly, and finally transformed into a reliable solution, and the solution is mainly to improve relevant standards and improve Channel performance indicators, for example:
In the information production process, more precise intelligent terminal hardware devices are laid.
In the information collection process, the standards of various data are unified, information islands are broken, and information compatibility is realized theoretically.
In the information transmission link, improve the energy efficiency, coverage radius, transmission speed, etc. of the communication network.
In the information storage link, strengthen the computing power and reliability of the cloud platform, and improve its information storage and processing capabilities.
Improve the reliability of artificial intelligence algorithms in the information analysis.
From the above scheme, we can easily see that the bottleneck that restricts the development of these digital technologies lies in the problem of the development of these digital technologies, such as the sharpness of intelligent hardware, the standardization of the big data industry, and various The capacity of the communication network, and the computing power of the computer. Therefore, if you want to let the data flow create value through smooth flow, and realize the decentralization, an important premise is to improve these infrastructures. It is like if two countries want to To trade, the relevant transportation network construction (such as railways, ports, airports, etc.) must be kept up first, so that there is a possibility to continue the next step.
However, a sound infrastructure is not a sufficient condition for smooth flow of information. As mentioned above, unlike the human body, every part of the machine system in the process of transmitting information is often attributed to different stakeholders. This has created a problem that the human body system has not faced – trust. For C-side information providers, this information is their privacy, and for B-side information collectors, data is their core asset. If it is in the process of information circulation, information is subjective or objective. There are leaks or even losses in the cause, which will undoubtedly bring economic losses, life problems, and even personal threats to the parties. If this trust problem cannot be solved, then even if the infrastructure is perfected, the data will not flow smoothly, let alone give solutions and realize the sinking of rights. It is as if the two countries are in a state of hostility or even war, and the mutual understanding and trust no longer exist. Even if the communication line between the two is perfect and the throughput is large, large-scale trade activities cannot occur.
Under such circumstances, it is necessary to build a bridge of trust between different stakeholders in the digital economic network through blockchain technology. According to the potential hidden dangers, there are two main construction methods:
First of all, if you are worried that information is leaked or even falsified due to objective factors such as external attacks and intrusion, resulting in user losses, there are two main solutions: First, not using blockchain technology, through network security. The technology strengthens the security level of the channel, especially the centralized cloud platform, to resist external attacks. The second is to use the blockchain technology to turn the centralized cloud platform into a decentralized fog platform, which makes it impossible for attackers to start. After being split by fragment encryption, it is stored in a computer belonging to a plurality of different stakeholders, and the location of the file storage and the process of streaming are stored in the blockchain, and are extracted according to the index on the chain when needed. And can be combined.
Secondly, if there is concern about the leakage of information in the process of circulation due to subjective factors such as the evil of the relevant institutions, there are two solutions: in the protection of C-side data providers, blockchain technology can be used. Determine the data and, after the future edge computing technology matures, retain the user's data on the edge platform, not the centralized cloud platform, so that users have ownership of their own data, the relevant keys are kept by themselves, if the product Development and operations organizations want to use this data, they need to apply to the product users, and each transfer requires authorization from the user. Only when the other party signs the key, can the data be used. In the protection of the data collectors of the B-end, the data assets can be protected by allowing the data analyst to obtain only the user's right to use, rather than ownership – because the data analyst's demand for big data is mainly In order to polish its own AI algorithm, when it is used to trade data usage rights, it does not need to obtain complete data, but only provide its own original algorithm model. In the transaction process, the buyer and the seller will adopt the algorithm model. And big data is uploaded to the smart link based on the alliance chain. No data can be seen by anyone except the data provider. After the training is completed, the data file package can be returned to the data collector or destroyed locally. However, the data analyst gets a polished model, and the big data is effectively flowed under the protection of the blockchain smart contract without risk of leakage.
Strictly speaking, the blockchain digital solution that promotes the flow of information in machine systems is currently only an idea put forward by digital economy practitioners, although it does not completely avoid privacy disclosure (for example, sharing of C-side user information). The problem of data integration is still not solved. There is bound to be room for improvement in the future, but its theoretically high feasibility and the significant increase in trust in the digital economy system have made many practitioners feel A refreshing look. It is also for this reason that in the digital economic wave of the past few years, the blockchain has received the highest attention compared with other technologies. With the help of this computer system with computer information technology as the core, more power will be decentralized to individuals and small groups, thus creating an unprecedented social ecology that we mentioned earlier— – That is the decentralized economy.