Fighting the new crown, the blockchain is late: Blockchain anti-epidemic application report

Author: Jiang according to students, Zhao Yue, Linze Ling, Wang Mengting

Source: 01 Blockchain

introduction

At present, no matter who you are, you will always follow and know the epidemic situation and related news of the new coronavirus (2019-nCov). It is the 4G / 5G-based mobile Internet and big data infrastructure that provide such possibilities. Such conditions were not available during the SARS period in 2003, or in the major national and local populations during the 2014 EBOV confrontation. We now see that the core of the epidemic situation of the new coronavirus (2019-nCov) is actually the collection and collation of relevant data. Without data, there is no direction, policy and measures.

Therefore, behind this "war" against new coronaviruses is not only an all-round test and challenge to public health systems such as medical science, medical education, medical structures, and epidemic prevention systems, but also a challenge to big data, cloud computing, The challenges and challenges of artificial intelligence hardware and software, and even engineers and programmers.

In this context, what role can blockchain technology play? How to land? What is the function? Nuoyi Finance · Zhouyi think tank and digital assets research and research, wrote "Resisting to the new crown, the blockchain is late-Blockchain epidemic prevention and epidemic prevention application report". Under the premise of full "apology", this report proposes and explains from ten aspects that the blockchain can make a difference in fighting new coronaviruses, not only for now, but also for the future.

Today, the entire planet is facing multiple pressures of rapid population growth, accelerated urbanization, and continuous ecological degradation. The threat of new viral mutations to life and society will no longer be an intermittent, isolated or accidental phenomenon. Economic and social impacts are growing. Therefore, timely collection, collation and analysis of relevant data should become an important daily work led by the government and involving the people and professionals. In such work, blockchain technology should not only be absent, but also play an irreplaceable and important role.

Zhu Jiaming

February 9, 2020

 

table of Contents

1. Blockchain + Charity: Let the data shine in the sun 2. Blockchain + Epidemic warning: Make the epidemic monitoring and warning more timely

Blockchain + trip monitoring: make personnel isolation more efficient

Blockchain + Public Safety Monitoring: Make Epidemic Monitoring Faster

V. Blockchain + Medical Supplies Traceability: Making Medical Supplies Safer

Blockchain + public epidemic data is open: make epidemic data more real

Blockchain + public opinion supervision: let people get more effective information

Blockchain + medical data sharing: making epidemic prevention and control more transparent

Nine, Blockchain + Insurance: Make peace of mind after the epidemic

X. Blockchain + distributed collaboration: opening a new office model

The prevention and control of pneumonia outbreak of new coronavirus infection has entered a critical period. When the epidemic met the large-scale movement of people during the Spring Festival transportation, whether it was government governance, business operations, or public life, they faced severe challenges of internal non-proliferation and external defense export.

Fight against the epidemic.

In the fight against the epidemic, next-generation information technologies such as big data, cloud computing, and artificial intelligence are playing a role: artificial intelligence accurately identifies user information and assists body temperature monitoring in public places; multiple supercomputing centers are working to assist China CDC's R & D New coronavirus vaccine shortens the research and development cycle; cloud computing accurately and informatively collects and analyzes data, combines with big data to track user journey information, and effectively assists government scientific decision-making …

Big data, artificial intelligence, cloud computing, etc. have become new measures and new "weapons" for responding to the epidemic this time, but the highly anticipated blockchain seems to be absent.

Many problems emerged in the course of epidemic prevention and control, including information transparency, trust mechanisms, item tracing, reasonable data sharing, privacy protection, etc .: For example, the Wuhan Red Cross encountered problems in receiving and distributing protective materials; from The first case appeared, and the epidemic was fermented throughout the country around the Spring Festival. The epidemic warning mechanism was severely tested. After the epidemic broke out, how to achieve the best of both information disclosure and personal privacy; how to ensure that the masks flowing into the market at this point in time meet the epidemic prevention and control. Standards to prevent manufacturers of counterfeit and shoddy products from making a huge profit for the country; and at the critical time of epidemic prevention and control, public opinion management and the real-time publication of epidemic data are the keys to stabilizing public sentiment, to prevent rumors from flying around, and to ensure public opinion and epidemic data The truth and transparency of our company is very important …

The emerging blockchain industry has not had time to show its strength in this anti-epidemic operation. But the industry's response is not slow, and many blockchain technology companies have started to provide services. The blockchain industry also has many in-depth discussions and reflections. For example: Blockchain can help charity be more open and transparent, let the data be exposed to the sun, and strengthen the credibility of charitable organizations; Blockchain can make epidemic early warning prevention and control more timely, improve accountability mechanisms, reduce approval processes, and improve early warning efficiency; The blockchain can to some extent solve the problem of achieving information transparency without leaking privacy; the blockchain can also establish a true and credible source tracing mechanism to better match medical supplies with hospital needs, and make each batch of supplies Make the most of everything … In addition, blockchain technology is also expected to play a huge role in scenarios such as public safety monitoring, medical data sharing, post-epidemic insurance recovery, and distributed office collaboration.

Based on this, we combined the current industry actions, discussions, reflections and investigations, and combined with the epidemic prevention and control process, we sorted out the ten perspectives that blockchain technology can play a role.

Being late doesn't mean doing nothing. The blockchain is responding quickly.

I. Blockchain + Charity: Let the data shine in the sun

When the campaign to fight the epidemic in Wuhan and even across the country started in full swing, we all looked forward to the sound of victory as soon as possible, but found that from the ears from time to time, the voice of medical front-line personnel issued a shortage of medical supplies.

In order to win the battle against the epidemic, this Spring Festival, volunteer groups of various public welfare organizations and spontaneous organizations are quietly busy, giving up vacations, not making money and gaining profits, finding suitable sources of supply around the world, matching the needs of frontline hospitals, and opening up Purchasing, logistics, customs and dispatch processes. The Chinese "sweeped" the global mask market in almost a week, with more than 56 million masks and various medical facilities transporting China's frontline of epidemic resistance from around the world.

However, with the outbreak of epidemic prevention and control in full swing, the shortage of frontline medical supplies did not seem to have been fundamentally alleviated, and the Red Cross, which is receiving social donations, has become the focus of public opinion.

On January 30, 2020, the doctor of Wuhan Xiehe Hospital called for emergency online help, claiming that the medical supplies of Xiehe Hospital were about to run out, and begged for social assistance, with a special emphasis, "It's not urgent! It's gone!" Previously, the official website of Hubei Red Cross Society The use of 17 donated materials has been announced. Among them, Wuhan Ren'ai Hospital, which specializes in infertility diagnosis and treatment and did not receive fever patients during this period, received 16,000 N95 donated masks distributed by the Red Cross, while Xiehe Hospital, one of the 61 popular clinics in Wuhan, only received Received 3,000 masks. This situation has also sparked heated debate in the public opinion as to whether the Red Cross has unreasonable distribution of donated materials.

Credibility is the key to the development of charitable organizations.

From government-led philanthropy to corporate-led philanthropy, to the rapid development of Internet philanthropy, China's philanthropy has continued to develop and iterate over the past forty years, and the public's awareness of philanthropy has been awakened and pushed forward. More and more people are involved in public welfare activities within their ability. The coverage area and market size of the public welfare and charity field are increasing day by day, and charitable public welfare organizations have always played the role of trust intermediaries from donors to recipients.

The lower cost, higher efficiency, and more secure solution to trust issues are the advantages of blockchain. The blockchain can get rid of human factors in the whole process of material donation and distribution as much as possible. It can reshape the trust mechanism with algorithms and technologies, strengthen the social credibility of charitable organizations, and open a new chapter of charity. The addition of blockchain technology will enable charitable organizations to no longer play the role of transfer intermediary for donated assets, allowing donors and recipients to directly match and dock, giving donors the confidence to donate, and the recipients' peace of mind.

The blockchain can ensure that the financial data of charitable organizations are authentic and auditable by virtue of its information disclosure being tamper-proof and other features. It can reshape the charity information disclosure mechanism, put related data on the chain, and solve the current social trust problems caused by insufficient information disclosure. The technical characteristics of the traceability of the blockchain can improve the tracking mechanism of charitable materials. By recording and storing the collection, distribution and use of related materials on the chain, the disclosure of donation information and the traceability of material flows can be realized, so that the society can understand each donation. The ultimate whereabouts of the organization will reduce the possibility of fraud by organizations and individuals; the controllable anonymous mechanism of the blockchain can meet the needs of some low-key donors and protect the personal privacy of donors; The smart contract technology is introduced at the bottom of the chain system, and the material usage rules can be set in advance, which can achieve automatic allocation, ensure that the special funds are dedicated, and greatly improve the efficiency of the materials from the charity organization to the recipients. In the foreseeable future, blockchain is expected to reshape the philanthropy model and achieve complete point-to-point precise philanthropy, and charitable organizations will also complete the role change in the change, from charity center institutions and asset transfer agencies to charity operation management organizations and Information Release and Reviewer.

In response to this epidemic, Ant Financial, which has used blockchain technology to empower charity, responded quickly. Before the Spring Festival, users can donate to the epidemic area through Alipay Public Welfare, and all the donation projects and user donation information have been connected to the ant blockchain to achieve open and transparent donation data on the platform.

According to the "Ant Financial Services Public Welfare Platform 2018 Operation Report", Ant Financial Public Welfare Platform is an Internet fundraising platform that provides charity organizations with services such as Internet public fundraising information release, zero-rate payment interface, information disclosure, and report acceptance. In other words, the Ant Financial Service Public Welfare Platform is only responsible for helping charitable organizations to raise funds from donors, and then remit funds to the corresponding charitable organization accounts, and the charitable organizations are responsible for reaching the relevant links of the recipients. Therefore, at present, there is only love project information and user donation information on the ant blockchain. The key second-half information related to procurement, logistics, and material distribution are missing on the chain. This information still depends on the traditional charity organizations. Information disclosure mechanism for disclosure.

Image source: Alipay-public welfare

2. Blockchain + epidemic warning: make epidemic monitoring and warning more timely

On November 16, 2002, the first case of SARS infection occurred in Guangdong Province, but in February 2003, the outbreak of "atypical pneumonia" began to spread on the Internet.

Seventeen years after the SARS epidemic, in December 2019, some medical institutions in Wuhan appeared with pneumonia patients of unknown cause. However, the public opinion about the new type of coronavirus pneumonia began to be almost two months later, in late January 2020. Spread across the country.

In the past 17 years, China's various medical standards have made rapid progress, but the level and ability to deal with such sudden epidemics still seem to be inadequate. The battle against viruses is a battle against time. If early warning and effective control can be taken before the outbreak of the epidemic is complete, perhaps the situation will be much better.

As early as April 2008, China operated national infectious disease early warning systems in 31 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) nationwide, established automatic warning and response mechanisms, and realized automatic analysis of 39 kinds of infectious disease surveillance data and real-time spatial-temporal aggregation. The functions of identification, early warning signal transmission and real-time tracking of response results have gradually evolved from traditional manual reporting to information and IT reporting modes.

Figure 1: Current reporting and early warning structure of infectious disease reports in China

Source: Wushier, "Hardcore: Improving National Infectious Disease Surveillance and Warning Network with Blockchain Technology"

Compared with the SARS period in 2003, China's infectious disease surveillance system has improved a lot, especially for the early warning of known infectious diseases. Through bottom-up data feedback and analysis, it can timely respond and allocate resources for effective control. But in the face of an unknown new epidemic, it seems a bit weak. There are technical reasons as well as human factors.

Based on the high requirements for data integrity and accuracy of national infectious disease reporting, the current infectious disease report card needs to be manually reviewed from the clinician to the national infectious disease network direct reporting system. This multi-level verification model is a very safe and secure way to deal with known diseases in ordinary times, and can avoid the negative impact of continuity caused by human error in individual links. However, in the face of sudden major infectious diseases, this mechanism has become a major flaw, greatly reducing the efficiency of reporting the epidemic situation, and seriously hindering the development of surveillance and prevention of major infectious diseases.

The problem of data islands among hospitals is also one of the reasons for the lag of outbreak warning. Due to the protection of patient privacy and case data, most hospitals now do not share data with other hospitals. Therefore, when a new epidemic occurs, hospital infectious disease report cards can only be transmitted vertically from bottom to top, and cannot be shared horizontally among hospitals. Therefore, there is a lack of data comparison between patients with the same symptoms between hospitals, and cross-validation of similar case data cannot be performed to further reasonably assess the severity of the disease. This kind of data isolation between hospitals will also cause some hospitals to blindly underestimate their destructive power and influence when facing unknown epidemics, and fail to take timely response measures. At the same time, due to data isolation and the country's high requirements for infectious disease data, each doctor, each hospital, and the local CDC bear the corresponding pressure every time a new infectious disease is reported, and it will be abnormal when handling new suspected infectious diseases. Be careful.

How can the blockchain improve this early warning mechanism?

Wushier put forward improvement suggestions in "Hardcore: Improving National Infectious Disease Surveillance and Early Warning Network with Blockchain Technology": Optimize the current gradual vertical one-way national infectious disease reporting network, and use the blockchain fragmentation mechanism , Establish district, city, provincial and national four-level blockchain automated data synchronization networks, rely on disease control centers at all levels in the four-level network, and establish autonomous capabilities for data collection and real-time early warning of infectious diseases without relying entirely on national level Infectious disease early warning system.

The existing public health data exchange platform is used as an exchange node for each level of data to form a real-time automated data exchange mechanism. The infectious disease report data between the districts is synchronized in the municipal epidemic prevention chain; the infectious disease report data between the cities is synchronized in the provincial epidemic prevention chain; and so on, the national epidemic prevention data is synchronized to the national level. Like the four wheels, the four-level epidemic prevention chain automatically completes the internal epidemic prevention and warning work in all districts, cities, and provinces, and continuously updates and supplements the data of other provinces through the national level epidemic prevention chain to form an epidemic prevention network with certain regional autonomy.

Figure 2: Four-level epidemic prevention chain

Source: Wushier, "Hardcore: Improving National Infectious Disease Surveillance and Warning Network with Blockchain Technology"

Specifically, for the multiple review issues uploaded by the epidemic, it is recommended to relax the authority to report infectious diseases for the first time, and doctors and primary medical institutions can directly report the initial infectious disease report card; afterwards, it will be verified and supplemented by the health insurance doctor and district and city CDC personnel The report card; and the national infectious disease big data warning can use the initial infectious disease report card to calculate the outbreak and spread trend of infectious diseases in advance, so as to carry out early warning and preparation.

Secondly, for the problem that the upper-level decision-making of the National Center for Disease Control and Correspondence is relatively long, it is recommended to rely on the real-time synchronization capability of the four-level epidemic prevention chain data to establish a real-time judgment and early warning capability based on the rule model through blockchain smart contracts; The automatic disease early warning function sinks into the district, city and provincial epidemic prevention chains to form a real-time early warning network at the grassroots level, and then establish a national and grassroots two-level early warning network.

For the problem of islands of data between hospitals, district, city, province, and national blockchain epidemic prevention chains can be constructed to achieve automatic synchronization of epidemic data across hospitals and regions, and pass four-level health and health data exchange in the four-level epidemic prevention chain. Nodes implement data exchange across regions and hierarchies.

At the same time, relying on the traceability of blockchain data to form a complete, tamper-resistant responsibility chain can improve the accountability mechanism, provide ordinary people with a transparent basis for monitoring and event accountability, and provide a solid mass for epidemic prevention and control. basis. At the same time, this will also help governments at all levels, hospitals, disease control centers, and other relevant entities to actively sum up experiences and lessons after the epidemic, and strengthen their ability to prevent problems before they occur.

Blockchain + trip monitoring: make personnel isolation more efficient

Whether it is the new coronavirus pneumonia or the atypical pneumonia that broke out in 2003, both have encountered the Spring Festival. In the face of this type of epidemic that can be passed from person to person and has no effective drugs, the most effective countermeasure is to take quarantine measures and block possible routes of transmission. But as the epidemic center, 5 million people moved during the Spring Festival this year in Wuhan. How many virus carriers are there among these 5 million people? How many people have they contacted? These are difficult to determine, and how to isolate them effectively?

As a result, Wuhan was closed, and people across the country were required to isolate themselves at home. This is the most effective solution when potential virus carriers cannot be accurately identified at this stage, but it also causes huge economic losses.

In order to identify potential virus carriers as accurately as possible, many Internet companies have launched a national ride-hailing inquiry service for confirmed patients. However, the scope of screening for such services is very limited. It can only query people who have been contacted with confirmed patients on public transport such as trains and high-speed rail. It cannot cover other places and channels.

In the era of the Internet of Everything, if you gather all the data collected by various public mobile cameras such as cameras, communication operators, credit cards, and Alipay, determining the course of action of any one person is not a problem. But the question is, how do you integrate this data? Even if it can be integrated, how to protect personal privacy from leaking, and motivate people to voluntarily report their trips truthfully, thereby improving screening efficiency and accuracy? In response to this problem, the Conflux Research Institute believes that blockchain and cryptography technology may be able to solve it.

Through the "private collection intersection" technique in cryptography (the problem description of "private collection intersection" can be abstracted into two people-Alice and Bob, each with a collection, they hope to not tell the other party the content of the collection Calculate the intersection of these two sets. There are currently many mature solutions.) You can screen and compare the intersection of each person and the confirmed patient's itinerary while ensuring that the user's personal privacy data is safe. But how to mobilize users' enthusiasm, so that users are willing to put their personal trip data on the chain? The answer given by Conflux is: Suspect patients who can provide evidence that they have a history of contact with confirmed patients are preferentially tested and treated.

Regardless of the ethics and resource allocation involved, how to avoid falsifying personal trips in exchange for priority in the face of the shortage of medical resources? At this time, the blockchain will be used. As long as the blockchain certificate is adopted, the user's itinerary information is chained to avoid the risk of information tampering.

Through the combination of cryptography technology and blockchain, the existing “confirmed patient query” has been extended to a larger range and more channels, and isolation measures have been taken accurately and effectively.

Blockchain + Public Safety Monitoring: Make Epidemic Monitoring Faster

Public safety is an important well-being of people's livelihood. However, from the outbreak of SARS in 2003 to the epidemic caused by the new corona virus … Public safety incidents that caused casualties frequently occurred, posing a great threat to the public safety of society.

Public safety incidents have a variety of characteristics such as suddenness, destructiveness, publicity, urgency, jointness, and uncertainty. Early detection of public safety incidents, deduction of change processes, and automatic capture of the emergence, sensitivity, and tendency Relevant information, predicting its development trend, and quickly achieving the prevention and control of public safety incidents have an important role in social stability.

Taking public health security as an example, with the characteristics of distributed storage, immutability, encryption, and traceability of the blockchain, the time for disease prevention and control can be shortened to a certain extent, and the effect of treatment can be improved.

First, the entire process of disease prevention, control, and treatment involves a large number of independent institutions, including government, hospitals, disease control centers, and related public welfare organizations. The distributed storage and non-tampering characteristics of the blockchain can not only speed up the response speed of the health system in emergency situations, but also prevent the falsification of related information and maintain the transparency of the information.

Second, in the process of disease prevention and control, a large amount of patient information is also involved. The encrypted nature of the blockchain can ensure that different institutions share patient information while protecting patient privacy, and help to realize the sharing of secure data between different levels of health organizations. And storage.

Third, using the traceability of the blockchain and using geographic location-related information, you can quickly locate the active location of the infected person, which will help strengthen the prevention and control of disease.

Because public safety-related industries involve administrative supervision and other aspects, they have certain specialities. At present, there are no relevant mature application cases in China. However, relevant regions and departments in the world have applied blockchain technology to public safety prevention and control.

Global Health and Safety Organization (GHSA) Blockchain-based Public Safety Monitoring System

The Global Health and Safety Organization (GHSA) has proposed a blockchain-based public safety monitoring model. Under the three major disease control categories (ie prevention, detection and response), the GHSA action plan and the detection effect of non-communicable diseases (NCD) are both This has greatly improved the ability to detect threats in a timely manner and report them to the relevant health authorities. Many disease outbreaks can be avoided by preventing threats early and responding to them in a powerful manner.

Figure 3: Application of blockchain technology in public safety monitoring

Source: "Strengthening public health surveillance through blockchain technology"

Blockchain-based Ebola virus tracking system SERIS

Ebola virus is a severe infectious disease virus that can produce Ebola hemorrhagic fever in humans and primates, with a mortality rate between 50% and 90%. At present, experts have proposed the blockchain-based Ebola monitoring platform technology SERIS.

SERIS is a smart Ebola monitoring platform based on blockchain and IoT technology. It can upload data obtained from IoT devices on the blockchain platform. These devices monitor mobile phone companies' CDRs, censuses, and national transportation. System and Ebola vaccine production database for real-time Ebola contact tracking, surveillance of transmission patterns and vaccine delivery.

V. Blockchain + Medical Supplies Traceability: Making Medical Supplies Safer

With the continuous development of new coronavirus-infected pneumonia epidemics, mask protection is related to people's health and safety. On January 31, 2020, the National Health and Medical Commission issued the "Guidelines for the Protection of People at Different Risks of New Coronavirus Infection" and the "Guidelines for the Use of Pneumonia Masks for the Prevention of New Coronavirus Infection". There are four types of recommended masks, one at a time: Sexually used medical masks, medical surgical masks, KN95 / N95 and above particulate matter protective masks, medical protective masks.

At the same time, it emphasized that "cotton gauze masks, sponge masks, and activated carbon masks have no protective effect against virus infection." At present, the masks in short supply in the society are medical masks, KN95 / N95 and above particulate matter masks, warm masks, anti-fog masks and other masks, which have no protective effect on preventing virus infection, and should not be used in this outbreak.

At present, the supply of masks is seriously inadequate, and some criminals have taken the opportunity to sell "fake masks". On February 3, 2020, the Ningxia Yinchuan Public Security Bureau Food and Drug Ring Branch cracked a case of selling counterfeit and inferior masks, defeated a criminal gang who took the opportunity to sell and sell fake and inferior masks and other protective supplies during the epidemic prevention and control period, and arrested two A criminal suspect seized 53,300 fake and shoddy disposable masks and more than 540 fake and shoddy N95 masks.

In addition to masks, the problem of fake medical supplies and anti-epidemic materials is also prominent. From January 27 to February 5, 2020, the Shanghai public security organs detected 9 cases of manufacturing and selling fake and inferior anti-epidemic materials, arrested 25 suspects, and seized more than 30,000 fake and inferior masks and "84" disinfectant 13 Ton. On February 3, the Shanghai police successively detected three cases of sales of medical equipment that did not meet the standards, involving a total amount of 250,000 yuan.

On February 4, 2020, the Beijing Municipal Market Supervision and Administration Bureau reported that the Municipal Market Supervision and Administration Bureau worked alongside public security agencies to detect the first cross-provincial case of selling counterfeit brand masks in Beijing, arrested four suspects, and seized counterfeit 3M brands. More than 21,000 masks.

In addition to the medical product counterfeiting exposed in this epidemic, in recent years, the problem of drug counterfeiting has also occurred frequently. The Qinghuang Shuanghuanglian incident in 2009, the Shandong vaccine counterfeit incident in 2016, and the "longevity biological" vaccine counterfeit in the country in 2018. Incident, the problem of counterfeiting in the medical industry seriously threatened people's lives and health.

How can we effectively curb fake medical supplies?

Based on the non-tamperable nature of the blockchain, a blockchain-based medical supplies traceability system is established, and each time stamped transaction will be automatically copied to the blockchain and cannot be modified. The non-tamperable characteristics of the blockchain not only ensure the authenticity of the data, but also ensure the security of data transmission. At the same time, it can also achieve the effect of reducing costs.

Utilizing the characteristics of blockchain distributed storage, medical supplies manufacturers, wholesalers, and terminal sales use medical supplies traceability systems to achieve open and transparent information on auditing and tracking inventory to ensure the safety of medical supplies.

At present, domestic enterprises are actively applying blockchain technology to the traceability of medical supplies. Take domestic company Guigui Technology as an example. At present, Zhigui Technology uses blockchain technology to empower the pharmaceutical industry, and has launched solutions such as smart blood and traceability of dentures.

Zhigui Technology's self-developed blockchain-based product traceability system, based on the Z-Ledger alliance chain, integrates cutting-edge technologies such as the Internet of Things and big data to enable distributed source-sharing data sharing and collaboration platform construction.

In the "smart blood" solution, Zhigui Technology can realize the real-time monitoring of the entire process of collection, transportation, processing, preparation, storage, distribution, and use of blood products through the RFID chip + blockchain cold chain monitoring platform, and Responsible for the faulty blood to ensure the safety of blood use. This solution is also applicable to vaccines and proprietary Chinese medicines that require strict supervision.

And the denture traceability solution based on blockchain technology can effectively solve the problem of false tooth materials and other issues. Users can also understand the status of their dentures in real time, and improve the trust of all parties.

Figure 4: Zhigui Technology's blockchain-based product traceability system

Source: Zhigui Technology Public Account

This system collects information and data of the whole process of traceable goods, can achieve fine-grained management of the whole chain, support the supervision and authenticity of the supervision department and consumers, solve the problem of traceability of various counterfeit and problematic products, and help enterprises achieve counterfeiting, internal control, Many goals including brand upgrades.

Blockchain + public epidemic data is open: make epidemic data more real

Open, transparent and true epidemic information plays an important role in stabilizing people's emotions and effectively controlling the epidemic.

On January 24, 2020, the General Office of the State Council collected relevant clues from the local government and the relevant departments and departments in the epidemic prevention and control work in the implementation of the epidemic prevention and control, inadequate prevention and control, shirking, and perfunctory blame. As well as suggestions for improving and strengthening prevention and control work.

On January 29, 2020, the Central Steering Group sent an inspection team to Huanggang City for inspection and inspection. The director of the Huanggang City Health Committee and the director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention actually asked a few questions about the capacity of the designated hospital and the number of specific beds and nucleic acids. Clear data on monitoring capabilities are unknown. According to the situation of the one-day inspection, the inspection team requested Huanggang City to speed up the progress of the examination of suspected cases according to the opinions provided by the central guidance group, and at the same time, it must be deployed by the central party and the State Council to make greater progress in implementation, implementation, and implementation. In particular, we must make sure that the figures are accurate and the situation is clear, to ensure that suspected cases and confirmed cases are housed separately and that suspected cases are housed individually.

In the epidemic prevention and control work, once the supervision and inspection is not timely, it is easy to cause problems such as concealment of information and false reports of the epidemic situation, which will adversely affect social stability. For ordinary people, due to the lack of medical expertise, they do not fully understand the actual progress of the epidemic. If there is doubt about the epidemic data released by relevant departments, it will lead to many online rumors, which will cause the epidemic to a certain extent. Other adverse social impacts. Therefore, it is necessary to build an open, transparent, timely and truthful epidemic data release mechanism.

Utilizing the distributed, decentralized, and non-tamperable features of the blockchain, the Ubisoft Data and the University of Electronic Science and Technology University and Wuhan University developed the epidemic statistics and response information blockchain platform to collect data from governments at all levels, health committees, and universities And other public epidemic information and countermeasures information, public opinion information from various places and patient portrait data on-chain certification, and the use of the blockchain's points system to build the quality of the epidemic data disclosure of each province and university, to achieve data tracking and traceability and the entire life cycle. Management helps to provide corresponding data support and technical support for various decision-making and deployment of epidemic prevention and control of governments, universities and other institutions.

On February 2, 2020, the Nansha District of Guangzhou's Epidemic Prevention and Control Collaboration System went online. This system is based on the "Nansha City Brain" and uses information technology such as blockchain to aggregate and integrate key personnel, the latest epidemic data, and resource scheduling of the epidemic. All kinds of epidemic prevention information have opened up the "data chimney" of each department, and strive to build a unified epidemic prevention and control command center. In addition, as enterprises resume work one after another, Nansha District will use the system to continue to strengthen epidemic prevention and control, relying on blockchain technology, to encourage enterprises to truthfully report epidemic prevention information.

Blockchain + public opinion supervision: let people get more effective information

In our country, due to the asymmetry of information and the malicious actions of some individuals, public health events are always accompanied by a series of rumors during the development and evolution process, which lead to misleading decision-making and cause unnecessary panic to the masses.

During the SARS epidemic in 2003, rumors continued to emerge from the source of the virus to the route of transmission to the treatment of remedies, which once caused incidents such as looting of materials and brought major problems to the economy and people's livelihood. The new crown pneumonia epidemic, from various government prevention and control measures to masks and other related information, has also appeared to varying degrees of false news, such as "2019-nCoV gene fragment has artificial editing traces", "shuanghuanglian can inhibit the new type "Pneumonia" and other "rumored" screens have a negative impact on the prevention and control of the epidemic and the people's lives. The latter rumor caused the purchase of Shuanghuanglian oral solution in multiple regions.

In this case, relevant authorities or non-governmental organizations are always behind the rumors to stop rumors, and even need to be punished by laws and regulations to deter them. However, various types of untrue information are still being generated, such as "3 It is not possible to return to Hangzhou from the beginning of the day and night, the expressway has been closed, "" Shunfeng stopped collecting revenue nationwide on February 3, "and so on. As of February 4, in the WeChat public account "Doctor Lilac" rumor column, there were at least 80 related rumors of new coronary pneumonia. There is no lack of rumors about the key information in the prevention and control of the epidemic, such as the source of the virus, the way of transmission, and the means of prevention.

China's existing public opinion monitoring system has not been able to track the authenticity of information sources, nor can it allow people to verify the authenticity of information in a timely and effective manner. In most cases, it can only be done after rumors spread. Authoritative departments carried out rumors.

In the information age, the Internet has become a key field for the exchange of public opinion. Various types of false information can be negatively affected by mobile Internet channels at a larger scale and at a faster rate. In the face of repeated false news, from government departments to the public, there is an urgent need for a new and more efficient technical system to achieve more effective public opinion management and control, thereby positively guiding the masses to face the epidemic and prevent and control the epidemic more scientifically. . During this anti-epidemic process, the role of blockchain technology in the supervision of public opinion has also been widely discussed.

Blockchain is essentially an immutable distributed digital ledger. Its characteristics of traceability, immutability, and multi-node-assisted verification can be used to create a credible and binding public opinion mechanism. Such a public opinion mechanism includes the three complementary features of source assessment, content tampering, and multi-node content verification.

With the help of blockchain technology, the public opinion supervision system can track the source of information to effectively combat online rumors.At the same time, because the blockchain technology can achieve full node records of details such as the time of information generation and circulation, it can support multiple dimensions The cross-validation of information makes the research and judgment of public opinion more scientific and predictable.

A public opinion system based on blockchain technology, due to the diversity of information nodes, high information production costs, and irreversible propagation processes, will help information consumers improve the level of information selection. At the same time, the public opinion transmission path can be traced back, which will also limit the generation and dissemination of spam and false information.

At present, the application of blockchain technology to online public opinion management is still in the early research stage globally. However, there have been social network media platforms based on blockchain technology.

One example is Steemit (steemit.com). Steemit is a social content sharing platform built with blockchain technology and put into operation in 2016. The biggest feature of Steemit is the "decentralization" through blockchain technology Reward mechanism. The platform is characterized by the decentralization of information dissemination and irreversible information generation caused by blockchain technology. In the process of information dissemination, it adopts distributed ledgers to establish information release and dissemination tracking mechanisms, and provides information publishers and disseminators with information. Reasonable incentive mechanism, thus constructing a new type of online public opinion transmission ecosystem.

Blockchain + medical data sharing: making epidemic prevention and control more transparent

The data construction of China's medical and health system has achieved certain results in the past few years. The most core medical data, including patient signs, examinations, and medication information, have been digitized. The sharing of medical data based on digitalization is the key to promoting the construction of the medical system and improving medical efficiency. However, there are still many problems in collecting and sharing data in China's medical data platforms, including low data quality, information islands, tampering, missing records, leaking personal privacy, and gray data transactions. The existence of these problems has brought resistance to the improvement of the overall medical system.

The new crown pneumonia epidemic not only affects the whole country, but also infected people appear in other countries and regions in the world. Because different countries and regions are involved, the lack of medical data sharing and untimely situations in the epidemic prevention and control process are prominent, giving the epidemic prevention Control brings a lot of challenges, and this issue has caused much concern.

Medical data is related to the health status and biological data of patients, and at the same time has a high degree of privacy and sensitivity. Therefore, higher requirements are imposed on data security. In the case where data security cannot be solved well, it is necessary to achieve Medical data sharing means high costs. The emergence of blockchain technology has made the industry see a possible way to solve this problem.

The role of blockchain technology in achieving medical data sharing is mainly reflected in several aspects. One is that its distributed storage can maximize the protection of data integrity from damage caused by attacks and failures. The other is that the blockchain cannot The tampering characteristics can ensure the authenticity of medical data; the third is that blockchain technology can achieve the complex permission storage of multiple private keys and ensure high security, so that data sharing without compromising security and cost becomes may.

At present, there have been cases of applying blockchain technology to medical data sharing at home and abroad.

In 2018, a research team from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the United States launched the blockchain electronic medical record system MedRec. Based on the blockchain, the MedRec system will store all clinically relevant data of patients in a distributed manner, and medically authorized personnel can at a specific time These data can be obtained by accessing within the segment without geographical restrictions.

In January 2017, IBM Watson reached a cooperation with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to explore the application of blockchain architecture in public health. Both parties explored the conversion of patient data based on multiple sources in order to achieve the sharing of patient data The data on the chain includes electronic medical records, clinical trials, genetic data, and medical data included in mobile devices, wearable devices, and IoT devices.

In China, corresponding applications have also been promoted:

In August 2017, Alibaba Health and Changzhou City, Jiangsu Province jointly launched China's first medical application-based blockchain application-the "Medical Alliance + Blockchain" pilot project, which entered data generated by various medical institutions into the block. Chain to ensure that each piece of data from each data provider is trusted and cannot be tampered with, in order to achieve secure and controllable data interconnection and interoperability between medical institutions.

In September 2018, Huashan Hospital affiliated to Fudan University joined hands with Ant Financial to launch the nation's first electronic blockchain prescription. The blockchain technology is mainly used to ensure that the prescription is accurate, non-tamperable and traceable to solve the problem of returning patients. Repeated prescribing of prescriptions and other problems.

At this stage, the application of blockchain technology and medical projects are still in the early stages of development, but the key role of blockchain technology in China's medical system is becoming increasingly prominent. Using blockchain technology to achieve the interconnection and interconnection of medical data can not only save the cost of medical treatment for patients, It can also make more effective use of medical resources, bring huge convenience to people's lives, and help the entire medical health system to operate more efficiently.

Nine, Blockchain + Insurance: Make peace of mind after the epidemic

In major public health emergencies, it is inevitable that people will be seriously ill or even lose their lives, so the role of insurance will become more prominent. In the process of preventing and controlling the new crown pneumonia epidemic, various departments under the CBRC have also made business and product adjustments to adapt to the epidemic, which are mainly reflected in opening a green channel for claims settlement, enriching product supply, and expanding insurance responsibilities.

The insurance industry has always received the most attention and criticism. Several points include "nuclear insurance difficulties", "slow claims" and "intermediaries". In this epidemic, we can see that in order to make the claims and claims work quickly and effectively , Many insurance platforms have opened green channels for fast claims settlement. In terms of compensation, due to the inability to ration human services in the epidemic, many intelligent technologies have been applied, and the application of blockchain technology in insurance has also been valued. With the help of blockchain technology, it can not only solve the above-mentioned problems of underwriting claims, but also solve the problems of insurance fraud, difficulty in reconciliation, and high fees charged by intermediaries in the traditional insurance industry.

Blockchain tamper-resistant distributed storage technology can ensure the authenticity of user information on the chain and facilitate cross-validation of information, thereby effectively preventing insurance fraud. At the same time, smart contracts can be used to automate insurance claims settlement processes and reduce the number of lines. Reduce labor costs and speed up the insurance business process. Real-time full-chain sharing of information through blockchain technology can allow insurance consumers to directly interface with insurance products, eliminating a large number of middlemen who previously existed because of information asymmetry, which increased the cost of insurance product consumption.

Blockchain technology, based on its characteristics of distributed storage, point-to-point transmission, and tamper-resistance, plays an increasingly important role in effectively solving problems such as "ethical adverse selection" and "high cost of establishing trust mechanisms" in the insurance industry.

In recent years, regulators have repeatedly issued papers to encourage the development of blockchain technology in the insurance industry. For example, on July 16, 2019, the CBRC issued the "Guiding Opinions of the General Office of the China Banking Regulatory Commission on Promoting the Real Economy of Supply Chain Financial Services", which mentioned that bank insurance institutions are encouraged to embed new technologies such as the Internet of Things and blockchain During the transaction process, the intelligent risk control level was improved.

Many insurance companies at home and abroad have applied blockchain technology to insurance business. Public information shows that, as early as 2015, ZhongAn Insurance's ZhongAn Technology established a blockchain team to explore the integration of blockchain technology and the insurance industry; Sunshine Insurance launched points related to the concept of blockchain technology as early as 2016. The system "Sunshine Bay"; in 2017, the Shanghai Stock Exchange launched the blockchain insurance business platform "Baojiao Chain", which is used in transactions, settlement and anti-fraud, etc. Recently, it has also launched a "community insurance + zone" in the field of earthquake insurance. "Blockchain" attempt; PICC has launched blockchain technology applications in areas such as insurance marketing and breeding insurance; China Re Corporation and ZhongAn Technology and other companies launched the first domestic blockchain reinsurance experimental platform, while insurance companies such as Ping An Group Some have already applied blockchain technology to various business processes.

Not long ago, in the "White Paper on Blockchain Insurance Application" prepared by the China Academy of Information and Communications Technology and the Shanghai Insurance Exchange and co-authored by 10 internal and external institutions, the main application scope of blockchain in the insurance industry currently covers reinsurance, 11 application scenarios including annuity management and health care.

X. Blockchain + distributed collaboration: opening a new office model

Earlier, the State Council issued a notice announcing the extension of the Spring Festival holiday to February 2, and officially started work on February 3. In response to the national call to fight the epidemic, reducing crowd gathering and avoiding cross-infection, working from home has become the majority of companies. First choice. On February 3, Ali's Nail data showed that tens of millions of companies and nearly 200 million people in China use Nail to open the home office mode.

As early as the 1980s, IBM successfully implemented the remote office model. With the development of the new economic era, many companies have begun to promote the planning of remote office. The market size of China's remote office is also gradually expanding. Industry giants such as Ali, Microsoft, Tencent, and Huawei have successively launched their respective products, such as Dingding, Huawei Cloud Welink, and so on. According to research data from Huatai Securities Research Institute and Hobby Research, the domestic remote office market size was 5.37 billion yuan and 19.44 billion yuan in 2012 and 2017 respectively, and the market size is expected to reach 47.83 billion yuan in 2020.

While saving costs for enterprises and providing employees with more comfortable and convenient office conditions, there are still many problems with remote office work that is still in the development stage. On the first day of resumption of work, many online office assistant tools, such as corporate WeChat and Dingding, suffered from short-term stalls and dropped calls to varying degrees due to excessive online meeting requirements. In addition to the problems of hardware facilities, there are also trust issues and information synchronization issues in remote offices.

(1) Trust between enterprises and employees

Telecommuting breaks the traditional credit model between enterprises and employees. Employees work in fixed locations uniformly. Enterprises establish a series of systems for unified management. Remote office has changed this model, and enterprises can't grasp the dynamics of employees anytime, anywhere. Some companies have increased the number of check-ins and regular meetings in order to monitor whether employees are serious about going to work. They are required to respond at any time during working hours, and even require employees to open their cameras throughout the day.

Companies don't believe that employees will work seriously at home and worry about employees being lazy, while employees think that meaningless meetings will only affect the pace of work and waste time, and the surveillance of cameras is a violation of personal privacy. In this situation, the two sides have intensified the conflict of trust.

(2) Information synchronization between teams

When working in a team, everyone needs to collaborate to achieve a common goal. There may be delays or inadequate information sharing among members. At the same time, in the remote office mode, the scattered team members may lead to a lack of accountability of members. Once a problem occurs in a certain link, accountability costs are high and it is difficult to pursue accountability, resulting in poor quality of collaboration completion tasks.

Blockchain technology, as the core technology of the next-generation Internet, has the characteristics of decentralization, openness and transparency, collective maintenance, and traceability, and has natural advantages in the collaboration of Internet groups. As an emerging data sharing technology that leads change in the new era, we can use its "block + chain" data structure to store and verify information to solve problems in remote office. Use asymmetric encryption mechanism for data transmission and data security, use consensus algorithm and incentive mechanism to update data and ensure the normal operation of the system, and use smart contracts to automate the execution and operation of data protocols.

A. The transparency of information based on blockchain technology can enhance the efficiency of information sharing within the team. Blockchain nodes will broadcast the information to each node for verification after new information appears, and then update the information. All data records are established on the basis of trust, which can effectively prevent malicious tampering with the information or accept wrong information.

B. Through the unique timestamp characteristic of the blockchain, a chronological chain can be formed, making the information on the chain authentic and reliable and traceable. Once there is a problem in the work of a certain link, the source can be quickly queried to achieve accountability. Managers can also understand the work progress of employees through timestamps, eliminate the possibility of false information, avoid trust issues, and provide a technical framework for building a new trust model.

summary

In the face of the epidemic, the blockchain can actually help improve far more than the ten typical scenarios listed in this article. However, due to the degree of technology application and other limiting factors, the role of blockchain technology in this epidemic prevention and control was not as large as we thought, especially compared with big data, cloud computing, artificial intelligence and other technologies.

However, the birth of the blockchain is just over ten years ago. The application of blockchain technology in industry, government affairs, public opinion, public welfare and other social life has just begun. The government, universities, and enterprises are actively implementing the practice of blockchain during the epidemic prevention and control process, which has shown us the hope of large-scale application of blockchain in public events: Nansha District, Guangzhou City, based on blockchain and other information Nansha District Epidemic Prevention and Control Collaborative System based on technology launched on February 2 Structure or reform the charity donation process.

Perhaps many of the blockchain applications mentioned in the article cannot be truly realized in this epidemic prevention and control. However, the blockchain industry already has a strong sense of urgency. We believe that the blockchain will provide better services for the prevention of viruses, reconstruction of social life, and future public services.

Don't stay here.

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