Under the epidemic, how can blockchain technology empower medical data sharing scenarios?

Editor's Note: This article has been deleted without altering the author's original intention.

On the evening of February 13, Fan Jingang, Vice President and Secretary-General of the Blockchain Branch of the China Group Promotion Association, was a guest at Fire News TALK. The following is a record of the interview.

 

Highlights

Fan Jingang, Vice President and Secretary-General of the Blockchain Branch of the China Group Promotion Association:

· Future scientific and technological innovations will be represented by blockchain, big data, and the Internet of Things, bringing data integration across business processes and collaborative innovation across application scenarios, thereby driving innovation in digital governance systems.

· By establishing a blockchain-based data sharing model and establishing a corresponding incentive mechanism, various types of talents from multi-professional fields, including data scientists, business experts, institutional decision makers, IT engineers, etc., will help deep mining The value of medical big data and better ability to make predictive and early warning management.

Aiming at the characteristics of China's decentralized medical information system construction, non-uniform standards, and heterogeneous systems, how to effectively interconnect health information resources is a major challenge for China's medical and health data sharing.

· It is the blockchain technology that has the characteristics of multi-centralization, time series data, collective maintenance, programmable and secure and reliable. Therefore, in promoting the trusted sharing of medical data, the blockchain technology is bound to be the most promising tool.

· On the one hand, the government will have new policy support, on the other hand, the trusted sharing of big data based on blockchain and the application of privacy protection technologies, both of which can promote medical big data sharing and eliminate information silos. I estimate that it will be widely used in the next 2-3 years.

Interview Record

Moderator Zhao Yidan, editor-in-chief of Huoxun Finance: Good evening, everyone! Thank you for watching the special section of the blockchain industry talent think tank of Huoxun TALK! The theme of this special column is "How does blockchain help business and organizational innovation under the epidemic?" 》

Eleven guests have shared this special program, and tonight we will welcome the last two guests. First of all, welcome General Fan to appear and share.

Fan Jingang: Thank you host! Hello everyone! This is Fan King Kong. First of all, I would like to pay high respects to the medical workers and colleagues from all walks of life who are fighting on the front line of the epidemic! Secondly, thanks to Huxun Finance for its invitation. I am very honored to participate in this theme sharing. Today I will discuss the issue of blockchain-based medical data sharing with you.

01

Future scientific and technological innovation will be represented by blockchain, big data, and the Internet of Things

2020 is bound to be an extraordinary year. Shortly after we set up the New Year's flag just across the years, when we were about to embark on our journey home and celebrate the Spring Festival with friends and family, a sudden epidemic broke all assumptions and plans, and we entered an unprecedented war. " We are also deeply aware of the lack of lessons in the education of ecological civilization that "savory game is rare and indispensable." At the same time, in the face of daily fluctuations and changes in the data of suspected cases, confirmed cases, and death cases of new crown virus infection, our medical and health system, especially the national infectious disease surveillance and early warning network, has undoubtedly undergone the largest test, and brought Comprehensive review of public emergency management, supply of epidemic prevention materials, supervision and control of public opinion.

As a "veteran" who has been in the blockchain industry for many years, I also experienced the SARS period in 2003. SARS is still in the stage when the western Internet technology revolution has just been completed and China is still struggling to achieve Internetization. The epidemic at that time hit the traditional offline business model to a certain extent and played an important catalyst role in promoting China's Internetization. After 17 years, the new crown epidemic has brought about a comprehensive upgrade of isolation and protection measures such as "contribute to lying down" and "three-piece travel". On the other hand, it will also bring "isolated economy" and "inviting investment without meeting" in business and organization , "Contactless service", "distributed collaborative office" and other application model innovations, and these application concepts have a high degree of consistency with the content of blockchain technology.

At the same time, we see that on the 5th of February, the Central Document No. 1 was released, placing blockchain technology at the forefront of artificial intelligence and 5G technology for the first time. It is conceivable that future scientific and technological innovation will be based on blockchain, big data, The Internet of Things as a representative brings data integration across business processes and collaborative innovation across application scenarios, thereby driving innovation in digital governance systems.

Today, my sharing will mainly focus on the medical big data sharing scenario. First of all, based on the current development situation, I will guide you to understand the current development of medical big data in China. Then I will interpret the medical and health Under the rules of the regulatory system, what kind of problems will medical data sharing face? In the third part, we will explore the combination of blockchain and medical big data, and propose corresponding solutions to the problem. Finally, the early warning of the epidemic situation The coping mechanism shares my thoughts and suggestions with you.

02

The state has already set the policy tone in promoting the open sharing of medical data resources, data collection of information systems, integration sharing, and business collaboration.

The first part: the development status of medical big data.

Health and medical big data is an important basic strategic resource for the country. The Chinese government has been vigorously promoting the interconnection, integration, and sharing of health and medical information systems and public health and medical data to eliminate information silos. The Office of the State Council has promoted and standardized health Guiding Opinions on the Development of Medical Big Data Applications, and the Opinions of the General Office of the State Council on Promoting the Development of "Internet + Medical Health" and other documents to cultivate new health care formats and health and economic growth points to achieve national and provincial population The health information platform and the national drug bidding and procurement business application platform are interconnected to establish a cross-department health and medical data resource sharing and sharing pattern, and a national medical and health information grading and open application platform is implemented to achieve cross-departmental integration with basic data resources such as population, legal person, and spatial geography. And cross-regional sharing to expand data fusion applications in medical, pharmaceutical, medical insurance and health related fields.

It also specifically mentioned the need to "integrate social network public information resources, improve disease-sensitive information early warning mechanisms, timely grasp and dynamically analyze global population health trends such as disease trends and global infectious disease epidemic information, and improve public health emergency warning and Emergency response capabilities. "It can be seen that the country has already set the policy tone in promoting the open sharing of medical data resources, data collection of information systems, integration sharing, and business collaboration.

In September 2018, the National Health Commission issued the “National Health and Medical Big Data Standards, Security and Service Management Measures (Trial)” (National Health Planning Development [2018] No. 23), emphasizing that the National Health Commission will “in accordance with national information resources Relevant regulations on open sharing, establishing a working mechanism for the open sharing of health medical big data, strengthening the sharing and exchange of health medical big data, and coordinating the construction of a health medical big data reporting system platform, information resource catalog system, and sharing exchange system ", and "Health and medical big data" is defined as data related to health and medical treatment generated in the process of people's disease prevention and health management.

Medical big data is divided by type, including personal data and material data:

• Personal data includes: 1) Disease data: electronic medical records, inspections, imaging, medical equipment, mobile consultation, Internet medical platform data, genetic sequencing data, genetic test results, etc .; 2) Health data: physical examination data, smart wearables, genes Data, etc.

• Material data includes: drug circulation, pharmaceutical research and development, pharmaceutical materials, medical expenses, payments, medical insurance information, etc.

The above data can be divided into in-hospital data and out-hospital data according to whether the data is collected and transferred in the hospital.

The specific classification of medical big data is shown in the figure above

Let's take a look at the characteristics of medical big data:

The main features are:

• Large volume: A CT image contains about 100 MB of data, a standard pathological map is close to 5GB, and the volume of medical big data is huge;

• Polymorphism: data sources are diverse and cover a wide range of forms. Including text, medical images, etc., multiple types of data place higher requirements on data processing capabilities;

• Incompleteness: The collection and processing of medical data are often disconnected, which makes it difficult for medical databases to fully reflect any disease information. A large amount of data comes from manual records, leading to deviations and incompleteness of data records, and the expression and records of many data are also uncertain;

• Redundancy: Medical data is generated in large quantities every day, and the same person may generate the same information in different medical institutions; the entire medical database will contain a lot of duplicate and irrelevant information;

• Timeliness: The data is created quickly and updated frequently. The sampling period of many data has been upgraded from weeks and days to minutes, seconds, and even continuous records. This places higher demands on response speed and processing speed. Transient events such as medical consultations and disease processes that do not occur at a certain point in time will show different characteristics in the early, middle and late stages. In addition, the disease may have seasonal characteristics;

• Privacy: Data privacy is an important feature of medical big data. Leakage of medical and health data, such as an individual's illness, diagnostic results, genetic data, will have a negative impact on the individual and involve violations of citizenship. The huge amount of information leakage means that the genetic information of the Chinese population may be grasped by the West, which can be used to improve the accuracy of biological weapons and seriously threaten national security.

03

By establishing a blockchain-based data sharing model and establishing a corresponding incentive mechanism, it will help deepen the value of medical and health big data

Let's take a look at the second part: analysis of difficult points in medical big data sharing.

The medical industry is a data-intensive industry. At present, we can all feel that through the Internet of Things technology, online consultation, "Internet + hospital", digital medical smart devices and other channels, the types and quantities of medical and health big data are increasing, and the speed is increasing. Faster and faster, this requires higher data processing capabilities of the medical system information platform, while storage and computing capabilities also need to increase.

The clinical decision system (CDSS) is the most valuable system in data utilization. Although this concept and application have been developed for more than 40 years, it will still be found that the range of data that the system can provide is limited and many times still need to be collected More basic patient data, such as patient allergy history, medication history, family history, and genetic conditions, are likely to give doctors more reliable and effective advice.

For example, doctors in cancer hospitals will contact many patients throughout their lives. Their clinical diagnosis experience and the medical records they deal with constitute an important source of medical data. However, even if different doctors obtain the same data and information, due to different experiences and judgments, different diagnosis and treatment schemes will be formed. Different diagnosis and treatment schemes may cause large differences in the cure cycle of patients.

Another example is the diagnosis and treatment plan of new coronary pneumonia. Experts from different hospitals have given five or six treatment plans, and they need to be adjusted in time according to changes in the patient's condition. If the adjustment is not timely or the judgment is wrong, the diagnosis and treatment of the disease will be taken. Comes with serious consequences. And this also requires that when medical data is shared, the corresponding levels and authority settings need to be set according to the actual clinical experience of the doctor and the existing diagnosis and treatment results, so as not to cause improper diagnosis and treatment and affect the disease.

Medical big data sharing will face four major challenges:

First, the challenge of data sources. The source of big data is multiple, the quality is uncontrolled, the data standards and data formats are difficult to unify, and some data is not available, such as: unreachable fragmented data, accessible but wrong Data, single data is data that is accessible, correct, and incomplete and cannot be repaired.

Second, the challenges of data governance. Without a new approach to data governance, the problem of data sharing cannot be solved. The self-sufficient data governance method in the original single platform system is difficult to meet the need for unified data sharing across regions and hospitals. Therefore, a new data governance method must be adopted and a new data governance mechanism must be formulated.

Third, the challenge of data analysis capabilities. With the rapid development of medical and health informatization, hospital information centers are more computer professionals, but there is still a lack of statistical analysis, epidemiology, compound talents who understand both medical knowledge and big data.At the same time, for the blockchain, Distributed ledger technology, parallel computing, etc. still lack in-depth understanding and application.

Fourth, the challenge of organizational synergy. Medical big data sharing applications require teamwork. Excluding technology and data sources, the most important thing is organizational issues. By establishing a blockchain-based data sharing model and establishing corresponding incentive mechanisms, various types of talents from multi-professional fields, including data scientists, business experts, institutional decision makers, IT engineers, etc., will help deepen the mining of medical care The value of health big data and better predictive and early warning management.

04

In promoting the credible sharing of medical data, blockchain technology is bound to be the most promising tool

Here is the third part: the construction of a medical data sharing model based on blockchain.

Aiming at the characteristics of China's decentralized medical information system construction, non-uniform standards, and heterogeneous systems, how to effectively interconnect health information resources is a major challenge for China's medical and health data sharing.

Beijing Liangguan Network Technology Co., Ltd. tried to consider building a blockchain-based medical data integration and information sharing model. This model will achieve non-intrusive and lightweight integration between related medical institution systems and full sharing of health and medical resources. All of them have certain reference significance for China's large-scale regional medical data sharing mechanism.

1. Blockchain promotes the principles and mechanisms of medical data sharing. Blockchain is a distributed database system with the participation of multiple independent nodes. It can safely store cryptocurrency data transactions or other data, and ensure the security of these data or information, preventing data from being tampered with and forged.

Blockchain is generally deployed in P2P networks.It is different from common relational databases and non-relational databases.Blockchain uses digital signatures, hash algorithms and other encryption algorithms and distributed consensus algorithms to ensure the encryption of data transmission and sharing. And privacy, the data stored on the blockchain network is extremely difficult to tamper with, destroy or erase the database operation log.

It is precisely because blockchain technology has the characteristics of multi-centralization, time series data, collective maintenance, programmability, and security and reliability. Therefore, in promoting the trusted sharing of medical data, blockchain technology is bound to be the most promising tool.

2. Blockchain-based medical data sharing service application architecture. Use big data governance technology to standardize and standardize the data of various departments / institutions inside and outside the hospital, and establish medical data resource labels;

Based on blockchain distributed storage, smart contracts, encryption technology and other medical data resources to confirm the source, privacy protection, and secure sharing, to achieve the benefits (integrated decision-making, disease early warning), benefits of medical big data based on blockchain Medical (auxiliary medical, single disease analysis), Huimin (health management, chronic disease management) services.

The specific application architecture diagram is as follows:

 

05

The blockchain-based medical data sharing service application architecture is estimated to be widely used in the next 2-3 years

The fourth part is some of our thoughts and suggestions.

Since the development of the new crown epidemic, we have learned more about the new crown virus and its transmission mechanism. At the same time, experts and scholars in many industries have also given industry insights and suggestions for improvement from their respective perspectives.

The so-called "nothing new under the sun", a related report said that a Canadian BlueDot company that uses data to assess public health risks has used artificial intelligence technology at the end of December 2019 to predict the emergence of new coronaviruses based on the epidemic characteristics of infectious diseases.

This case happened to have been discussed and analyzed with team members before. By collecting relevant data such as transportation, food consumption, material circulation, medical diagnosis, social public opinion, and infectious disease early-warning monitoring system related to the epidemic situation, we also analyzed the data model. Establishing collaborative sharing and joint communication mechanisms with relevant competent departments, management agencies and decision-making agencies may provide some technical support for early warning of outbreaks.

Later, we were also glad to see that in order to effectively predict the development of the epidemic, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology stated on January 26 that it is necessary to use big data analysis to support service epidemic situation research and judgment, epidemic prevention and control deployment, and epidemic situation for mobile workers Monitoring and precise policy.

Therefore, there may be several small applications and applets on our mobile phones that can obtain the epidemic situation around us at the same time. Although the accuracy, real-time and completeness of the data may not meet all imaginations, the most important thing behind it is The reason may also lie in the insufficient connectivity of each platform, and even the corresponding platform load bearing capacity has not been improved accordingly.

The construction of medical data sharing model is a complex system engineering, from the collection, transformation, arrangement, storage of health big data to the use of institutions, to the relevant departments to provide support in terms of policies, technology, talents, funds, etc. The effective operation of the company necessarily requires the cooperation and sharing of multiple parties.

At the same time, if the blockchain technology is to be integrated with the major mainstream platforms, the laws and regulations in the field of health and medical big data, platform supervision, data standards, and data governance need to be considered. Of course, our national health is more needed. The medical policy and management system can fully give the development space of blockchain technology to enable medical data sharing scenarios.

Today I will share with you these thoughts and suggestions. Finally, everyone is welcome to communicate and discuss together!

Zhao Yidan: Thank you Mr. Fan for making such a full preparation for this sharing. We systematically analyzed the current status of medical big data, the difficulties of medical big data sharing, the construction of a blockchain-based medical data sharing model, and expressed the current epidemic situation. Some of my thoughts are wonderful!

Next, leave some time for free discussion and free questions. Welcome everyone to interact with President Fan. Mr. Fan, let me throw a brick first. What is the biggest challenge facing the current blockchain-based medical data sharing service application architecture? How long do you expect to be widely used?

Fan Jingang: The host ’s question is very important. We have cooperated with medical institutions before. Medical institutions above level 3 are generally unwilling to share data. On the one hand, it involves interest issues (mainly the value of the data is still difficult to evaluate). On the other hand, medical data involves patients' personal privacy issues.

We have previously done a project of the provincial health committee, and it is difficult to promote medical big data sharing among the pilot hospitals designated by the health committee below. However, after this epidemic, I believe there will be great improvements in this regard.

On the one hand, the government will have new policy support, on the other hand, the trusted sharing of big data based on blockchain and the application of privacy protection technologies, both of which can promote medical big data sharing and eliminate information silos. I estimate that it will be widely used in the next 2-3 years.