Source of this article: China Logistics and Purchasing Network
Wu Liang, Research Fellow, Emergency Logistics Professional Committee, China Federation of Logistics and Purchasing
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Dong Xu, Secretary General of Emergency Logistics Professional Committee of China Federation of Logistics and Purchasing
Emergency material support is an important support for responding to emergencies. In the prevention and control of the new crown pneumonia epidemic, the production, procurement, deployment, and supply of key materials such as medical masks, protective clothing, goggles, medical alcohol, and disinfectants are critical. As a matter of urgency, emergency logistics is playing an important role in the "lifeline" of the overall battle for epidemic prevention and control and the "advanced officer" in keeping production and life running smoothly and orderly. Since the concept of emergency logistics was put forward after SARS in 2003, China's logistics industry has developed rapidly, and emergency logistics construction has also achieved some staged results, which have played an important role in responding to previous emergencies. However, during the epidemic prevention and control, especially in the early stages, emergency logistics exposed many problems, such as asymmetric information, irregular management, low process transparency, poor accountability, and difficulty in guaranteeing the authenticity of the donated materials. To accelerate the construction of emergency logistics and optimize emergency logistics support, it is necessary to keep abreast of the development of the times, be problem-oriented, and make full use of advanced concepts and technologies. Among them, blockchain has great potential for future emergency logistics construction and security.
The narrowly defined Blockchain is a decentralized shared ledger that combines data blocks in a chain in a chronological order into a specific data structure and is cryptographically guaranteed to be tamper-proof and unforgeable; Blockchain is a decentralized infrastructure and distributed computing that uses a crypto-chain block structure to verify and store data, uses distributed node consensus algorithms to generate and update data, and uses smart contracts to program and manipulate data. Paradigm; a broad-based blockchain is not just a technology, but also a new architectural concept, a new organizational form, and a new application model. The integrated application of blockchain technology plays an important role in new technological innovation and industrial transformation. The field of logistics and supply chain is the key application direction of blockchain technology, and it is ushering in new development opportunities. In the process of advancing the construction of emergency logistics, we should accelerate the development of blockchain technology and its innovative application in the field of emergency logistics, improve the intelligent level of emergency logistics construction, promote the realization of scientific, credible and effective guarantees, and enable limited resources. Get efficient distribution.
The blockchain has the technical advantages of distributed data storage, peer-to-peer transmission, consensus mechanism, encryption algorithm, etc., and provides a distributed database that allows multiple parties to participate in maintenance, consistent, shareable but non-tamperable, enhancing transparency, security and security. effectiveness. This article focuses on the application of blockchain-related technologies in the field of emergency logistics to promote efficient security, trust governance, and intelligent management of emergency logistics.
I. Blockchain promotes efficient guarantee of emergency logistics
Compared to other core technologies such as artificial intelligence, cloud computing, and big data, blockchain is a collection of advanced information technologies and mathematical algorithms. It is a technology that changes the way in which everything is interconnected, focusing on reshaping the "production relationship." The distributed bookkeeping, token incentives, and smart contracts in blockchain technology will profoundly change the emergency logistics mechanism. Based on the blockchain, it can efficiently transmit supply and demand information, and quickly understand how much emergency materials are needed, where they are needed, who receive them, How much is used will help match resources and regulatory processes, solve the problem of efficiently collecting, allocating, transporting, and distributing materials, constructing a new type of emergency logistics information system, and realizing efficient guarantee for emergency logistics.
(I) Efficient upstream and downstream demand transmission
The distributed structure of the blockchain can effectively help emergency logistics parties to achieve point-to-point communication without having to implement information exchange through a specific centralized structure, eliminating the tedious hierarchical information transmission structure and the "friction" generated by its organizational form It is smaller, adds lubricant for upstream and downstream demand transmission, accurately and timely meets the material needs of the affected areas, improves the efficiency and accuracy of information flow and sharing, promotes social collaboration, and avoids the "bullwhip" effect and data "islands". Emergency material demanders provide efficient and direct and more targeted material assistance to achieve a balanced balance of limited supplies and distribution on demand. At present, based on blockchain technology, the Wuhan University team has launched a national information exchange platform for protection against new crown pneumonia, “Ying Ying Shanlian”, which provides demand matching and business matching services for epidemic prevention and control materials and emergency protection materials. At present, Alipay has used the ant blockchain technology to launch an anti-epidemic materials information service platform, review material requirements information, store certificates on the chain and disclose information to the public.
(II) Efficiently deploy logistics operations in all links
The use of blockchain distributed bookkeeping technology is conducive to the overall planning of resources such as people, cars, objects, fields, roads, etc., to efficiently deploy logistics operations in various links, and to realize the integrated organization and operation of the entire chain of material security. The information on the chain can be very detailed, and the vehicle and material information of each logistics node can realize the scientific classification and loading of materials through the chain, and generate refined loading and distribution schemes, greatly improving the operation efficiency, cracking the transfer efficiency is not high, the route is not reasonable, Lack of on-the-spot supervision problems, reducing misfeeds and missed deliveries, and avoiding delays, dormancy, imbalances, and even disruptions in the emergency logistics supply chain. Combines artificial intelligence to automatically carry out route planning and route optimization to ensure the safety and efficiency of emergency material transportation, and improve the traceability and reliability of logistics information. Internationally, blockchain technology has been used in the allocation and distribution of emergency materials to achieve improvements in efficiency, efficiency and effectiveness.
(3) Efficiently build emergency logistics information system
Traditional emergency logistics command agencies rely too much on the command center. Once a failure or communication interruption occurs, the entire emergency logistics command system will be paralyzed. The emergency logistics information system can rely on a semi-public alliance chain to comprehensively use databases, business processes to construct, GIS, big data, and other technology clusters are integrated with functions such as command and communication systems, video conferences and monitoring systems, and response tokens. Through the integration of blockchain technology, an intelligent logistics information system is established to support the realization of multiple levels, multiple regions, and multiple centers. Standardized emergency command work, promote the effective centralized management and control of assets, inventory, allocation and allocation of emergency materials, improve the integrity and visibility of emergency logistics information, ensure the first time open and transparent distribution, and establish a cross-chain data sharing mechanism Realize social collaboration, implement permission agreements based on smart contracts, deploy access nodes to avoid system crashes, and comprehensively improve the efficiency, robustness and damage resistance of emergency logistics command.
Second, the blockchain promotes emergency logistics trust governance
Difficulties in emergency logistics trust governance stem from information asymmetry between enterprises and institutions with independent interests, and from incomplete contracts caused by the limited rationality of decision makers, which may trigger opportunistic behavior of participants. With the acceleration of Internet information transmission and the popularization of the sharing concept, the problem of trust management in emergency logistics has been alleviated due to the reduction of information asymmetry, and it has been exacerbated by new opportunistic risks and trust issues caused by the double-edged technology. Blockchain has non-changeable attributes. Blockchain logistics technology can track the flow of materials and effectively allocate tracking resources. Blockchain financial technology can solve the problems of settlement, post-compensation and benefit distribution of disaster relief funds. Blockchain technology and ideas The introduction will better promote trust governance in emergency logistics.
(I) Traceability of emergency materials to avoid inflow of fake and inferior materials
Relying on the blockchain, real-time production and circulation information related to emergency supplies can be recorded on the blockchain in real time, enabling full traceability from source to production to transportation to delivery. The entire network can be recognized to form an unalterable fact. Tracing the source plays a strong supporting role to prevent emergency materials from being mixed with fake and shoddy products. As early as 2017, JD.com has released the application of blockchain in traceability, and established a “JD.com blockchain anti-counterfeiting traceability platform” to integrate and write information on raw material processes, production processes, and distribution processes into the blockchain to achieve fine Tracing the whole process of authenticity with one item and one yard, especially for the "food safety", "drug safety" and "emergency logistics" scenarios in the field of people's livelihood to build a "trustworthy supply chain".
(2) Form a complete chain of responsibility and effectively reduce the cost of trust
In the past, the data and information in the emergency logistics system was maintained by the entities themselves. When the information on the ledger is not good for itself, the responsible party will choose to tamper with or even delete the records, and accountability will consume a lot of additional human, material and time costs. Emergency logistics has strict requirements on the quality of materials and timeliness of logistics. It is necessary to track the circulation chain of materials and information to achieve source tracing and anti-counterfeiting verification. Based on the blockchain, real-time dynamic tracking of emergency material circulation information can be implemented to enhance the transparency, accountability and credibility of emergency logistics, avoid the trust crisis caused by distortion and distortion of information transmission, and minimize trust costs and transaction costs.
The blockchain establishes a complete trust system by providing real-name authentication, electronic signatures, time stamps, data storage and credible services throughout the process, providing a reliable basis for transparent supervision and accountability, and forming a complete and tamper-resistant responsibility chain. The traceability and transparency of the chain will help all parties in emergency logistics to achieve self-certification, effectively improve the responsibility and service consciousness of relevant institutions, reduce rumors and rumors, greatly enhance the credibility of the government, and provide a solid foundation for the nation ’s “war epidemic”. Mass Basis.
(3) Introduce the paradigm of distrust, crack the trust crisis of donation
Recently, due to the untimely, non-public, opaque release of information such as the whereabouts of donated materials, and inefficient operation and management, some charities have encountered a crisis of trust. Blockchain can bring extremely high transparency and strict accountability mechanisms, and introduce detrusting. The transaction paradigm can solve the pain points of charity and public welfare. Its high security can ensure that each batch of materials recorded on the chain is authentic and credible, the flow information cannot be tampered with, where is the donated material, whether it is issued in time, and where the card is. The stagnation is transparent and clear, to prevent black-box operations and improve the credit level. The public does not need to question the charitable organizations' concealment or deceit when publishing information, which is conducive to donors and the general public to dispel doubts about charitable organizations. Real-time, open, and transparent donation methods dedicate love and gather the strength of the whole society to promote epidemic prevention and control. At present, FunChain and Xiong'an Group have launched the "Charity Tracking" platform for charitable donation, and 33 Complex Beauty has launched the "33 Blockchain Charity Platform" for publicity and traceability of charitable donations.
Blockchain promotes intelligent management of emergency logistics
The technical characteristics of the decentralization and detrust of the blockchain have shaped a new environment for emergency logistics construction in the Internet environment. In particular, smart contracts have opened up a new level of intelligent operation that is unrelated to emergency logistics construction. A new subject for intelligent management of emergency logistics.
The smart contract was proposed by Nick Saab in 1994, but at the time it was not practically used because it could not technically provide a trusted execution environment. After the emergence of blockchain technology, it is highly compatible with two requirements that must be met for the effective execution of smart contracts: first, once rules and data are generated, unilaterally cannot be tampered with, and all entities on the chain can obtain them equally; Allow any false or hidden transaction to exist. Therefore, the blockchain naturally becomes a trusted execution environment for smart contracts, which expands the multi-faceted practical application scenarios of intelligent management of emergency logistics.
(I) Achieving rapid and autonomous response to disasters
In the face of sudden disasters and public health events, it is necessary to mobilize the strength of all parties and mobilize various resources to participate in rescue and rescue in a timely and effective manner. Quick and autonomous response has become the core capability and huge challenge of the emergency logistics system. In the emergency response procedure of the emergency, blockchain technology relies on the characteristics of machine trust mechanism and intelligent contracts that can be executed automatically to achieve a rapid and autonomous response to emergency events. According to its type, intensity and scope, the corresponding plan is launched in time, and the emergency organization Emergency planning, production, dispatching, efficient mobilization of emergency supplies and equipment, ensuring orderly and effective support of emergency supplies, and improving response efficiency.
(2) Improve the efficiency of emergency logistics management
In the process of emergency logistics multi-party transfer of a large number of emergency materials, the characteristics of smart contract automation highlight its advantages in the face of large, multi-point, and diffuse complex related information. When the emergency materials delivery and receiving parties reach a consensus on the implementation of the contracted matters, the smart contract platform can automatically trigger signing, payment and other behaviors to reduce contract risks and improve execution efficiency. At the same time, the relevant circulation information is publicly disclosed on the chain to improve emergency response. Material circulation efficiency and emergency logistics management efficiency, reduce unnecessary costs, break through process barriers, reduce manpower, material and time consumption, and solve practical problems such as the shortage of personnel caused by rework and resumption.
(Three) establish the intelligent management technology matrix
Blockchain is not an independent technology, but a combination of innovations combining a variety of existing technologies. The deep integration of blockchain with IoT, big data, artificial intelligence and other technologies will become a trend. Converged applications will bring new great changes to the intelligent management of emergency logistics from various dimensions such as warehousing, transportation, distribution and reverse logistics.
The blockchain uses intelligent devices in the Internet of Things as nodes to manage the roles, behaviors and rules of emergency logistics parties in their interactions. Its distributed nature provides a way for the self-management of the emergency logistics Internet of Things, enabling each node to Center, self-trust, autonomy and anonymity, together build an emergency logistics information and value exchange network in the era of the Internet of Everything. The use of big data technology to integrate the information on the chain and deepen the value of the data can form a comprehensive panoramic view of emergency logistics activities, improve the accuracy of demand forecasting, achieve full-process, all-door data integration, and solve the problem of "fragmentation" of information. Quantitative analysis of the indicators of all parties can effectively evaluate, monitor and supervise, and establish common operating standards and cooperation methods for emergency material suppliers, logistics managers and other stakeholders. The use of artificial intelligence technology can process the real-time or near real-time data of the emergency logistics blockchain data, and fully mine the value of the precipitated information, provide auxiliary support for subsequent decision-making, and make the emergency logistics activities more intelligent.
Blockchain has extensive application prospects in emergency logistics, but blockchain technology also has its own limitations. It faces a series of technical challenges such as standardization, performance, capacity, security, scalability, etc., and cannot solve all problems. The problem should be to avoid excessive hype and overstatement of the blockchain for the sake of the blockchain. It must be treated with scientific rationality and prudence, and guide the application of this emerging technology in the most suitable scenarios, and it should not be replaced by pure technical means. Deep structural emergency system reform. In addition, it should be noted that the current epidemic situation should be based on the principle of being pragmatic and efficient, and avoiding "curves and widows" and "disengagement from actuality". Blockchain technology can be effectively docked with existing systems to shorten the research and development cycle, reduce manpower and material costs, and promote The efficient guarantee, trust management, and intelligent management of emergency supplies promote the more efficient, safe, and controllable supply network for emergency supplies, and realize greater social value.
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