Blockchain is one of the hottest words in 2019, especially when General Secretary Xi Jinping's speech during the collective study of the Central Political Bureau emphasized: "Take blockchain as an important breakthrough in independent innovation of core technologies, increase investment Efforts to accelerate the development of blockchain technology and industrial innovation. "Since then, blockchain has become a hotspot for learning across the country. What is blockchain? What is the use of blockchain? For a while it became the issue that people were most concerned about.
2What is a blockchain?
From a technological perspective, blockchain involves many scientific and technical issues such as mathematics, cryptography, the Internet, and computer programming. From an application perspective, blockchain is a distributed shared ledger and database, which is characterized by decentralization, immutability, leaving traces throughout, traceability, collective maintenance, and transparency. These characteristics ensure the "honesty" and "transparency" of the blockchain and lay the foundation for the blockchain to create trust. The rich application scenarios of the blockchain are basically based on the ability of the blockchain to solve the problem of information asymmetry, and to achieve collaborative trust and concerted action among multiple subjects.
In simple terms, blocks are containers for storing data. These blocks are connected in a manner similar to a chain to form a "chain" data storage method, and these data are copied into several copies, which are simultaneously copied to different Nodes are the blockchain. Unlike the "knot note" used before the text appeared, darts used more than 200 years ago to evacuate valuables and use dart boxes, and used iron chains to connect all the dart boxes in series. Compared with other new-generation information technologies, big data (or data) can be understood as production materials, cloud computing is the production method, artificial intelligence and 5G communication are productivity, and blockchain is the production relationship . Redefine the collaborative relationship, wealth distribution relationship, and trust relationship between people, institutions and institutions.
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- U.S. digital asset supervision still follows the lawful and orderly principle. In 2019, the "toll station" model will be opened to embrace innovation
- One-week regulatory review | German law allows banks to trade cryptocurrencies, changes in Asian law
3 The value of blockchain
In June 2019, Facebook's founder Mark Zuckerberg proposed the launch of the digital currency Libra, whose mission is to build a simple, borderless currency and a financial foundation that serves billions of people facility. Libra may have a huge impact on the monetary policies of various countries, the international financial system and the global payment system, and thus pose challenges to China's capital control, financial system, payment system, and network security. The digital currency DC / EP promoted by the People's Bank of China has basically completed the top-level design, standard formulation, functional research and development, and joint testing and testing. It is rationally selecting pilot verification areas, scenarios, and service scopes, continuously optimizing DC / EP functions, and steadily promoting digitalization Fiat currency introduced.
In addition to the application of blockchain in the field of digital finance, high expectations are also placed on integration with the industry. Industrial blockchain is another popular vocabulary after the "Industrial Internet". The essence is the integration of blockchain and the physical industry. At the same time, blockchain is also of unique value for promoting high-quality development and modernizing social governance.
Around the Spring Festival in 2020, the epidemic of new-type coronavirus infection pneumonia spread rapidly across the country, and the nationwide fight against the epidemic. The economic loss and social impact caused by the rapid outbreak of the epidemic are incalculable. Problems such as the failure of monitoring and early warning of the epidemic, insufficient government emergency management capabilities, lack of rapid response to material supply, and the hidden dangers of social public opinion are also exposed. Through blockchain, big data and other technologies, infectious disease data sharing and epidemic monitoring and early warning can be carried out. It has unique value for solving the timely sharing of multi-party information, establishing a data-based agile accusation system, and constructing a multi-party collaborative rapid joint prevention and control mechanism.
Similar to the application in epidemic prevention and control, blockchain has various application scenarios. To sum up, it is mainly reflected in four aspects: First , the function of confirming the right to store evidence . For various academic qualifications, contracts, certificates, electronic evidence, etc., by recording on the blockchain, the transition from self-certified innocence to other evidence innocence is realized. Second, data sharing , through privacy protection, data tracking, secure encryption and other mechanisms, to effectively solve the problem of effective data sharing and value transfer, and to play the true value of data as an important means of production; third, smart contracts , through formal verification Method, automatically execute transactions, reduce the impact of human factors, reduce transaction costs, and achieve transactions as performance and transactions as liquidation. Fourth, incentive mechanisms . Just as the Internet has spawned unique business models, the blockchain will establish new types of incentive mechanisms. Improve and transform the platform economy and sharing economy, gradually form a new model of distributed commerce, solve the fundamental contradiction between shareholders and employees, the company and users in the existing business model, and realize the identity of users, investors, shareholders, and sales. .
4 Typical Application Scenarios of Blockchain-Digital Copyright Protection and Transaction
With the outbreak of this epidemic, digital content such as knowledge payment, online education, online live broadcast, and online reading will usher in a blowout development again. Now open the circle of friends or WeChat group, a variety of WeChat, online classroom, live sharing has become the trend of the screen.
In the context of the rapid development of digital content, the importance of copyright protection issues has become increasingly prominent. The infringement of digital copyright is extremely easy. It only needs to be copied and changed to become its own work and gain revenue. In recent years, many works have been plagued by plagiarism. For example, from "Beijing No War", "The Palace's Chain City", "Golden Wedding", "Red Sorghum" to "People's Name", "Wolf Warrior 2" and "Nazi", copyright disputes of well-known film and television projects have been reported in newspapers and caused controversy.
At the same time, it is relatively difficult to confirm and defend digital rights. The traditional copyright registration method has high cost, complicated path, long cycle and difficult proof. These difficulties have led many creators to be unwilling and unaware of confirming the rights to their works through related channels. Once infringed, facing difficulties such as proof, high cost of rights protection, insufficient penalties, etc., it is difficult for creators to protect their rights and interests in the face of infringement and piracy. Difficulties in this area have also contributed to plagiarism in the field of cultural innovation.
Difficulties in determining rights and difficulties in safeguarding rights make it harder for copyright transactions. Both buyers and sellers cannot get symmetrical information, and the trust between the two parties is low. As a result, many creators' works cannot be realized in time. It is also difficult for buyers to select the digital content they want, or the purchased content is actually pirated, in use or facing The market is facing many disturbances such as infringement and delisting.
Blockchain can solve the above problems well. First, let's return to the nature of blockchain. The essence of the blockchain is a distributed database. All the information stored on it can be permanently stored, cannot be tampered with, and can track its running trajectory.
In digital cultural copyright, the blockchain is a distributed database, just like a giant library. All digital content is stored in this library like books. It has a copyright logo. Whoever borrows it will borrow it. Take and read records. If someone plagiarizes, the system can quickly find out which book it came from. At the same time, you can estimate the value of a book to users based on the frequency and duration of borrowing a book.
Specifically, what role can blockchain play in digital cultural copyright and transactions?
First, to solve the problem of the deposit and verification of copyright. The copyright problem was difficult to solve before, because it took a lot of time and money to confirm the right, and the cost was too high. Now with the blockchain, online certificate deposit, real-time certificate issuance, which cannot be tampered with, you can decisively take the shot. Creators can store their original works on the blockchain platform, obtain hash addresses and timestamps, and serve as the only copyright certification for their entire network, enabling one-stop deposit and confirmation of rights.
Second, the whole process of copyright authorization and transaction is traceable. In all aspects of copyright use and transactions, the blockchain can be recorded from beginning to end, so that the entire process can be traced back, and the entire process is irreversible and tamperable. In this way, copyright conflicts can be well resolved, and the entanglement of copyright issues can be avoided. In the event of a copyright conflict, proof can be provided as soon as possible. The creator can submit the blockchain's certificate record to the Internet court, which is fast and convenient.
Third, fair and transparent copyright transactions. Based on the above-mentioned certificate deposit, confirmation and tracking, combined with the blockchain smart contract, the user's authorization or transfer relationship of people, works, and copyright can be automatically recorded on the chain, orderly and traceable, so as to achieve traceability. Tracking the target, forming a transparent and fair trading mechanism, and promoting the development of the digital content market. It can effectively avoid the unequal market information, the copyright owner's works cannot be realised in time, and the purchasers of copyright works cannot buy the outstanding works in time, so that more outstanding creators can realise the value in time and stimulate greater creative motivation. Create better works for the copyright market and form a virtuous market cycle.
Of course, this is just the role of the blockchain in the certification, confirmation, traceability and transaction of digital content copyright. Once the application is mature, the blockchain can also realize a series of solutions and services such as distributed storage, authorization management, operation management, and transfer management of digital content.
Some blockchain-based copyright service platforms have also appeared on the market to jointly contribute to the development of digital content copyright. Blockchain is particularly rich in digital copyright applications, such as copyright transactions, copyright finance, etc., to realize copyright value evaluation, transfer authorization, distribution and issuance, IP financing, creative crowdfunding and other services.
With the escort of the blockchain, the digital content market can achieve orderly development, and it can also greatly encourage the entire people to create digital content. Creators can create with peace of mind. After creation, they obtain a certificate based on the hash address on the blockchain, and sell or transfer copyrights at appropriate opportunities to obtain corresponding market returns. The entire digital content market is full of vitality. Original digital content is full of vitality, everyone can participate, and enjoy the joy of creation and the national growth brought by digital content.
The emerging technology represented by the blockchain will become a new accelerator, deeply integrate with the traditional real economy, develop more application scenarios, continue to leverage the new development of the digital economy, bring about new changes in the market structure, and build a big future for the Internet of Everything. era.
As a senior blockchain practitioner, we are very encouraged and thankfully we were born in this great new era. Similarly, we feel that there is still a long way to go. Finally, it ends with an excerpt from Liu Shahe's (1981) poem "Ideal":
Please ride on the ideal horse,
Whip started from here,
Spring is just right on the road,
The sun is clear in the sky.