Journal of Party and Government Studies | Government Governance Practices of Blockchain Technology: Applications, Challenges, and Countermeasures

Author: Bai Pinghao (Central Party School (National School of Administration) History Department of Research Associate Professor); Yang Ning Cong (Nankai University PhD School of Marxism)

Source: Party and Government Studies

[Abstract] The application of blockchain technology in government governance is the unification of physical technology and social technology. Its core technologies such as consensus mechanism, smart contract, trust-free system, time stamp, and distributed ledger can effectively guarantee the security of government affairs data, improve the efficiency of government affairs, reduce power corruption, and have been applied to multi-national government governance. However, the decentralized nature of blockchain technology has challenged traditional governance authorities, and its own limitations and characteristics have also exposed government governance to risks of soundness and even undermined government governance. However, although the blockchain technology is not very mature at present, the government should seize the opportunity of governance change, clarify the wrong trend of thought in technology governance, establish a sense of sovereign blockchain, and promote the orderly development of blockchain technology with standards and laws. Continuously improve the core technology of the blockchain, transforming advanced technology into government governance effectiveness.

[Keywords] blockchain; government governance; modernization of national governance; social technology; anarchism

[Classification Number in the Picture] D63-39 [Document Identification Code] A [Article Number] 2095-8048- (2020) 02-0100-08

[Funded Project] A major research project of the National Social Science Fund "Research on Building a Socialist Ideology with Strong Cohesion and Leading Power" (18VZT004)

I. Introduction

Blockchain technology is based on a peer-to-peer network, which uses a chain structure to verify and store data, a distributed node consensus algorithm to generate and update data, cryptography to ensure data transmission and access security, and automated script code to form a smart contract operation data calculation paradigm. [1] Because of its "core technology such as peer-to-peer (P2P), time stamps, smart contracts, consensus mechanisms, and encryption algorithms, it naturally has decentralization, detrust, transparency and trust, anti-tampering, traceability, security and reliability "Characteristics" [2] has been widely used in the fields of currency, finance and government governance in recent years.

In October 2019, when General Secretary Xi Jinping presided over the 18th collective study of the Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China, he pointed out that major countries in the world are developing blockchain technology. We must also use blockchain technology to "provide more intelligent, More convenient and better public services "[3]. In other words, in the context of advancing the modernization of the national governance system, blockchain technology should be used to exert governance effectiveness, improve national governance capabilities, especially government governance capabilities, and help economic and social development. The application of blockchain technology to government governance is an innovation of the governance model, and the academic community has already achieved some results to explore this issue. Zhang Yi et al. (2016) believe that the research on blockchain technology is mainly concentrated in the technical and financial fields, and there is less research on the application of blockchain in government governance; blockchain technology does bring opportunities for government governance innovation. At the same time, it also challenges the government's management authority and puts forward requirements for the legal and regulatory construction of blockchain technology. [4] Wang Peng and Ding Yi (2017) studied the characteristics of blockchain decentralization, trust, and collective maintenance, and proposed to use blockchain technology to create a "new government governance"; in deepening customer orientation and creating shared co-construction The platform, while building a multi-center governance structure, provides "precision", "service-oriented", "personalized", and "customized" governance services. [5] Wang Maolu and Lu Jingyi (2018) expounded the working principle and technical advantages of blockchain, and discussed its role in government housing management, culture, taxation, health, civil affairs, auditing, finance and taxation, food and drug supervision, financial supervision, planning and resources The governance application of management and other departments, and put forward corresponding reform proposals. [6] Chao Naipeng (2018) focused on the application of foreign blockchain technology in government governance, and combed the government governance practices of multi-country blockchain technology. [7] Chen Feifei and Wang Xuedong (2019) discussed how to improve the legitimacy of government public power, and discussed the role, advantages and paths of blockchain technology in building government trust. 〔8〕

In general, existing research results have explored the innovation and impact of blockchain technology in government governance, providing a theoretical basis for this article, but there are still insufficients. First, the blockchain technology is constantly developing, and its application in government governance is also expanding. Many new application areas have not been covered by existing literature. Second, the existing literature discusses the advantages of blockchain technology from many angles, but there is still insufficient research on its shortcomings and its impact on the soundness, subversiveness, and politics of government governance. Third, the systematic review of the application of blockchain technology in government governance needs to be strengthened. In view of this, on the basis of systematically combing the practice of blockchain technology in government governance, this article deepens the research on the application, challenges and countermeasures of blockchain technology in government governance.

Application of Blockchain Technology in Government Governance

The government governance application of blockchain technology is the unification of physical technology and social technology. Its application foundation is based on several core technologies of blockchain. Because blockchain technology has the advantages of security, efficiency, and transparency, it is now being used by Many countries in the world are widely used in government governance.

(I) Application Mechanism of Blockchain Technology in Government Governance

The application of blockchain technology to government governance is an organic combination of physical technology and social technology. Physical technology is a basic technology based on applied science of applied physics, and social technology is an interactive technology that directly affects social structure, social system, and social relations. Social technology and physical technology correspond to each other, and a standardized system is formed in the interaction [9]. The emergence of physical technology is to solve the problems facing social technology, and the development of social technology also puts forward new requirements for the innovation of physical technology. Just as physical technologies such as telephones and the Internet are designed to solve human cross-regional information communication, the blockchain originally appeared as a physical technology of Bitcoin to solve social and technical issues such as peer-to-peer transactions. High-quality interaction with machines requires the further development of 5G networks, the Internet of Things, and artificial intelligence, and the goal of improving national governance capabilities also requires the government to use blockchain technology to transform the physical technology of governance into governance effectiveness. [10]

(II) Application Foundation of Blockchain Technology in Government Governance

Existing literature explores the application of blockchain technology in government governance, but rarely explains which blockchain technology forms the basis of government application, but clearly explains the technical basis of blockchain, and understands it in government governance. The application is helpful.

First, the consensus mechanism. The consensus mechanism is the core technology of the blockchain. It is a basic technology that guarantees the security, decentralization and scalability of the blockchain. It can help multiple parties to reach consensus on specific data in a certain way [11]. Consensus exists in the machine and also in the human field.The key to applying blockchain technology to government governance in more than 30 countries in 2018 is that the consensus mechanism is directly related to human social organizations. [12] After the consensus mechanism of the blockchain is reached, it cannot be modified or forged. The consensus algorithm guarantees the authenticity, transparency and security of the event. Many political parties and governments value this technical feature and use it for democratic consultation or voting.

Second, smart contracts. Smart contracts are similar to social contracts in that they allow transactions to reach a degree of agreement. It's just that smart contracts are code stored, verified, and executed on the blockchain, which are deployed and used by multiple parties or unilaterally. When the agreement is reached and the external trigger meets the coding conditions in the smart contract, the agreement will be recorded in the distributed ledger and executed automatically. In other words, once the condition is triggered, the smart contract can execute the instruction without human intervention, and all execution processes will be recorded by the information block. [13] Therefore, applying blockchain smart contract technology to government governance can greatly reduce government affairs processing time and improve the efficiency of government affairs execution.

Third, there is no trust system. A trustless system does not mean that there is no need for trust. Rather, it means that blockchain consensus mechanisms, smart contracts, encryption algorithms, and time stamping eliminate the need for trusted third parties to act as intermediaries or notaries. Trust systems can be divided into three categories: reputation, government, and trust machines. In less populated communities, human reputation is a guarantee of trust. In a more populous society, the state, government, and public institutions become authoritative trust guarantors. Historically, if the state maintains social trust, it maintains its own authority and achieves governance; if the state cannot maintain social trust, the state will collapse and its ruling power will be replaced. Therefore, the fundamentals of government governance in modern society are to ensure people's trust in people and trust in government, and to gain consensus and legitimacy from trust. The emergence of blockchain may transfer the responsibility or function of ensuring trust from third-party institutions such as government to technology, so that people's interactions are mediated by technology, and social affairs can be realized from trusting people, trusting government to trusting technology Change in trust data. [14]

Fourth, the timestamp. Timestamp means that all individuals involved in bookkeeping have time information on each block. Since the blockchain is generated in chronological order, it can provide a database containing all historical information [15]. That is, the block has a time stamp, which enables the block data to be accurately displayed in chronological order and irreversible. This feature makes government public affairs easier to review and trace. Fifth, the distributed ledger. Distributed ledger technology can record and share every transaction that users make in the network, and is used to provide a distributed ledger instead of a centralized database. Blockchain technology is a type of distributed accounting technology, which has the advantage of ensuring data security. This security is built on the node redundancy of the blockchain, because the redundancy can copy the information of one node to all other nodes, and through a decentralized way, the government affairs can still ensure the integrity of the data when a single node fails, Smooth operation [16]. Of course, the blockchain's encryption technology (hash algorithm and asymmetric encryption) is also widely used in the construction of government blockchains, because it can provide keys for government data maintenance and provide security guarantees for government data.

(3) Application Advantages of Blockchain Technology in Government Governance

The application of several core technologies of the blockchain to government governance is an important opportunity to promote the modernization of national governance systems and governance capabilities. The application of multi-national governments to government governance is based on the following advantages:

First, ensure the security of government data. As a centralized government data center, the government is vulnerable to cyber attacks and data loss. The block redundancy and distributed technology can realize data full node storage and ensure data security. It can also store data at any node in the world, reducing the possibility of data theft. In addition, each node has its own data management key, which makes the management and maintenance of government data more secure.

Second, reduce costs and improve government efficiency. As a centralized political power system, the government agency manages public resources and data, and is a huge and pyramid-shaped resource library. The centralized and centralized political resource system has certain stability, but its management and maintenance need to consume a lot of costs, and there are problems such as inefficiency, delay, distortion, etc. [17]. The blockchain consensus mechanism and de-intermediation, de-centralization, and trust-free technologies can simplify government administrative processes, reduce the burden of data and resource distribution and review; reduce the friction of opinion and time in the centralized decision-making process, thereby improving efficiency Provide fast service to the masses.

Third, reduce the possibility of abuse of power and corruption, build trust with citizens, and ensure the legitimacy of governing. "In recent years, due to long-term accumulation of contradictions, some people have complained, complained about social turmoil, and collapsed political power. Among them, corruption is a very important reason" [18]. Pew research data shows that the trust of American citizens in the government is close to the lowest point in history, and only 18% of Americans believe that the government is doing the right thing. There are many reasons for this mistrust, including corruption. . Today, multi-national governments are facing the problem of corruption governance and building public trust, and blockchain can ease this trend and strengthen public recognition of the political system. Specifically, blockchain technology can record and authenticate public affairs without using a central database, and these records cannot be erased or tampered with. This makes it possible to ensure that the data is complete, secure, transparent, reliable, and traceable, reducing the risk of single points of failure, blackouts at the central node, or lack of supervision. At the same time, it also eliminates the need for intermediary agencies, reduces tedious procedures, and reduces the risk of corruption at the discretion of the discretion; it makes it possible to track the entire process of public affairs and state-owned assets, which is helpful to the Discipline Inspection Commission, the government Audits or law enforcement officers monitor and review government affairs.

In other words, blockchain technology can ensure the security of government, citizens, and business data on the one hand, simplify and reduce labor-intensive public affairs processes; on the other hand, it can reduce excessive costs related to management responsibility and greatly improve governance efficiency It also helps to build a "cage" that restricts power corruption, improves the effectiveness of government governance, and restores public trust in the government.

(IV) Application Status of Blockchain Technology in Government Governance

Blockchain technology can help the government to provide citizens with high-quality public services, enhance citizens 'expectations of the government or public institutions, and also increase citizens' trust in the government and enhance the legitimacy of governing. [19] Because of this, blockchain technology has been applied to many areas of government governance. In 2018, 10% of governments worldwide have used blockchain technology to improve governance.

Estonia has been testing blockchain technology since 2008, using it for "more than 1,000 online government services" such as justice, healthcare, network security, identity authentication, and is considered to be the most advanced digital country in the world. [20] Australia, Russia, Denmark, and Thailand use blockchain technology for voting elections, speeding up the voting process, simplifying and reducing election costs, avoiding black-box operations, and developing stronger democratic nations. In 2018, the UK completed a slaughterhouse meat tracking using blockchain technology to ensure food safety, and plans to invest 10 million pounds to use technology for research and innovation. The EU uses blockchain technology for intellectual property protection and helps the government fight counterfeit and shoddy products. The United States uses blockchain technology for food and drug safety supervision, patient data sharing, homeland security protection, government information encryption, and aviation parts tracking. Dubai plans to build a government driven by blockchain technology in 2020, so that all government services will use blockchain technology. Switzerland uses blockchain technology for identification and encrypted payment, Georgia uses it for land registration, Singapore, Gibraltar, and Sweden use blockchain technology to develop digital currencies and cryptocurrencies, while South Korea uses blockchain technology to prevent infringement. Citizen privacy, taking over governance services throughout the city. It is worth noting that Mexico will also use blockchain technology to track bidding for public services to increase government transparency and reduce government corruption. Of course, there are also many governments that use blockchain technology for e-government, credit management, civil service management, traffic control, academic supervision, salary review, tax collection, financial audit, cross-regional education, vehicles, logistics, Internet, medicine (vaccine) , Firearms, refugee supervision, etc .; and developed a blockchain technology development plan and launched blockchain technology legislative work, laying a good foundation for the blockchain to promote government governance on a larger scale. 〔twenty one〕

China is also the first country to explore the application of blockchain technology to government governance. In 2016, China ’s Ministry of Industry and Information Technology ’s “White Paper on China ’s Blockchain Technology and Application Development (2016)” and the “Thirteenth Five-Year Plan” regard blockchain as a “strategic frontier technology”, and the “2018 China Blockchain Industry White Paper” is even more Use the blockchain as an important support to promote the construction of digital China [22]. Local governments in China, Hangzhou, Guiyang, Guangzhou, Henan, Shanxi, Shanghai and Xiong'an New District have all launched government blockchain projects. Guiyang also released a white paper entitled "Development and Application of Guiyang Blockchain" and formulated a blockchain development plan. The Xiong'an New District directly introduced blockchain technology into government governance in 2017, hoping to build a comprehensive supervision system through blockchain technology to build a clean, transparent, and efficient government; in 2018, it will be used for residential rental management. , To protect the privacy of tenants through encryption algorithms; in 2019, blockchain technology will be used for construction fund management to ensure the safety of funds and improve the efficiency of fund use. At present, the application of blockchain technology in the governance of the Chinese government is mainly based on trials. The Chinese government is full of expectations and actively explores more governance applications. In October 2019, General Secretary Xi Jinping emphasized in particular that "actively promote the application of blockchain technology in the fields of education, employment, retirement, precision poverty alleviation, medical health, commodity security, food safety, public welfare, social assistance and other fields", and to the people " Bring a better government service experience. " [23] In other words, we should use the blockchain to better promote national governance and government governance, explore more governance applications, and serve the people with advanced technology.

Challenges that blockchain technology faces in government governance

Blockchain technology provides a broad platform for modern government governance application development, but at the same time, due to its own characteristics, it also brings many challenges to traditional government governance.

(1) Going to the center brings challenges to government authority

Traditional government governance is a pyramid-like hierarchical or hierarchical structure, with clear boundaries between departments, and high-cost, low efficiency, slow response, monopoly of speech, and black box operations in government affairs [24]. Compared with the traditional government governance structure, blockchain technology has many unique advantages and potentials, which can drive institutional changes, reshape governance paradigms and processes, form checks and balances on public power, and make government affairs more efficient and transparent.

However, its decentralization, intermediary, and trust dispositions also mean that government authority is decentralized, and the necessity of the government as a third-party notary disappears. At the same time, blockchain technology will also enhance the power of non-government participants, cause power asymmetry, form a decentralized governance model and a decentralized autonomous society, obscure the subject and object of governance, and can be interchanged and replaced. . Some studies have even pointed out that the blockchain technology makes the traditional "governance" dead end, allowing people to build a new governance platform on the old "ruins". [25] In addition, the "anti-centralization nature" of blockchain technology poses a challenge to traditional government governance authority, especially centralized government authority. Western anarchists even claim that the country is an illegal and unnecessary place of power, and openly use new technologies such as blockchain as the liberation force for anti-government governance authority. They try to replace government with blockchain technology and establish de-authoritative and flat Anarchic society with a hierarchical, non-hierarchical structure. Radical liberals have even suggested the establishment of a stateless society through blockchain technology, removing restrictions on nation-state and sovereign governance, and making governance services more dependent on world markets rather than national governments. [26]

(2) Technical limitations put government governance at risk of soundness

Although blockchain technology is currently valued by many governments, enterprises, and financial institutions, it still has many limitations that put government governance at risk.

First, because government information is built on a public chain and stored as a public ledger, privacy and confidentiality are issues that blockchain technology must face. Although the current blockchain can use several anonymous or encryption-based mechanisms to protect information security, these mechanisms are not a panacea. Because each node in the blockchain network has a complete data history, it can be provided to each node user or governance participant for inspection. If the management key of any node is cracked, all government governance records and citizen information are at risk of being used by criminals. This places restrictions on confidential government information, citizen information or political voting.

Secondly, the security mechanism of blockchain technology needs to verify the public and private keys at the same time for identity identification or government affairs execution. If one party's key is lost, there is no other mechanism in the government blockchain system to ensure the security of government affairs information or promote electronic government affairs Operation, which also makes the application of blockchain technology in government governance inflexible.

Furthermore, the distributed structure of blockchain technology can provide a mechanism for supervising the government and provide a platform for citizens to participate in government governance. However, who will supervise and govern the behavior of each block and participating nodes is still not supported by relevant technologies.

Finally, despite the strong security of blockchain technology in government governance practices, the blockchain system itself in the early stages of development is not absolutely reliable. The "Blockchain Industry Security Analysis Report" shows that from 2011 to April 2018, the world caused huge economic losses due to blockchain security incidents. In government governance applications, when participants or hackers control 51% of the blockchain government network, they (they) have the opportunity to disrupt the security mechanism of the blockchain, tamper with and control most of the blockchain, and gain strength to Monopoly consensus, undermine the democratic mechanism of blockchain technology in government governance.

In short, if the above limitations cannot be effectively solved, it will limit the development and application of blockchain technology in government governance. [27]

(3) Blind areas of technical supervision contain destructive effects of government governance

Applying blockchain technology to government governance can be described as a double-edged sword. It can help the government to promote governance, and it can also disrupt government governance through encryption and de-intermediation. In other words, blockchain technology can become a tool to ensure the security of government operations, and it can also become a protective umbrella to hide criminal activities in the absence of censorship. Specifically, the daily operation of the government blockchain is jointly maintained by all network nodes, which means that the government's supervision of the blockchain is limited to the organization and management of the macro level, making each block node itself lack of supervision. [28] At the same time, any node of the blockchain does not have to bear the legal responsibility for data security. [29] If the power of government governance is decentralized in the absence of technical supervision, it is equivalent to the power of corruption or crime Decentralization has actually undermined government governance.

4. Suggestions on the use of blockchain technology to promote government governance

Blockchain as a disruptive technology can both achieve government governance and destroy government governance. This is also the emphasis of General Secretary Xi Jinping on "strengthening the guidance and standardization of blockchain technology and strengthening the research and analysis of blockchain security risks" 30]. The development and improvement of blockchain technology is a process of gradually overcoming its own weaknesses. Therefore, in order to further enable blockchain technology to exert its governance effectiveness in government governance, it is necessary to propose corresponding countermeasures and suggestions.

(I) Clear the misunderstanding of blockchain technology in government governance and establish the correct governance concept

Every technological progress will have an impact on social thoughts, and these political and philosophical thoughts will further affect the correct use and long-term development of technology. The application of blockchain technology to government governance is a combination of technology and ideas, and whether they can interact positively with the stability of social order.

First, resolutely maintain the authority of the government and put an end to the trend of anarchism in the governance of blockchain technology. The decentralization of blockchain technology has made the characteristics of "stakeholders gradually become equal, … reducing the control of public power in the public service sector and reducing the public's dependence on government departments" [31] and other features, which has promoted society. The process of deauthorization of autonomy and government governance has also made anarchists see the hope of using blockchain technology to build a flat structure and an authoritative autonomous society. However, as Engels's "On Authority" states, "It is absurd to speak of authority as something absolutely bad, and of the principle of autonomy as something absolutely good" [32]. Blockchain technology governance does not necessarily eliminate government authority absolutely like anarchism, nor does it need to advocate "less governments, more markets" like neoliberalism, and replace markets with government services. It must be pointed out that "the government, as the most important centralized authority system, is extremely critical in promoting the development and application of blockchain technology" [33], using blockchain technology to promote government governance and provide better government services The government should still be the main body. As a centralized socialist country, China needs a responsible and authoritative government to use blockchain technology as much as possible to grasp social information, to avoid the shortcomings of flat society, inefficient decisions, self-interest and self-interest of an anarchic society, Make decisions that are in the best interest of society and achieve good governance.

Second, establish a "sovereign blockchain" consciousness and resolutely maintain governance sovereignty. Marx and Engels pointed out in "German Ideology" that "the real content of all epoch-making systems was formed by the needs of the period in which they were created. All these systems are based on the entire development of the country's past It is based on the historical form of class relations and its political, moral, philosophical and other consequences "[34]. The application of blockchain technology in government governance should also meet the needs of governance modernization in the current period, follow the national conditions and history of each sovereign country, and consider the political, moral and philosophical consequences of various governance forms of blockchain. Technology liberals often emphasize the establishment of a stateless society based on blockchain on the basis of removing the borders of sovereign states, sharing power at the global level, realizing resource flow and coordinated governance. However, everything is dialectical. An unbounded blockchain society can provide great freedom, can also lead to social disorder, and undermine government governance. Therefore, blockchain technology can be borderless, but the blockchain must have sovereignty. This means that a country can conduct blockchain governance activities independently, without interference from other countries, handle blockchain government governance matters, implement prevention, self-defense, and crackdown on blockchain attacks, and exercise jurisdiction over its own blockchain government network. , Control and supervision. [35]

(2) Formulate application standards and laws to promote the orderly development of blockchain technology

Standards form rules, and laws create authority. To apply blockchain technology to government governance, there must be standards to follow and laws to follow. In order to better promote government governance, we should strengthen the standardized construction of government governance application of blockchain technology, and promote the formulation of laws and regulations on government governance application of blockchain technology.

Blockchain technology may become an important part of China ’s grasp of the global technology competition. However, the lack of blockchain technology standards will limit the application potential of blockchain technology in government governance. Therefore, accelerating the development of government application standards for blockchain technology will help transform scientific and technological achievements into governance effectiveness. Standard is the universal language of technology, the refinement and summary of technical practice, innovation, and progress. It is the result of consensus reached by multiple parties through consensus. It is an intuitive reflection of the combination of industry, university, and research. [36] Although the standards themselves are not legally binding, they are generally recognized by law. Blockchain national standards include basic standards, information security standards, industry and application standards, etc. For government governance applications, standards are critical because it will have a normative impact on the operation of blockchain technology. 〔37〕 In December 2017, the National Standards Plan for Information Technology Blockchain and Distributed Ledger Technology Reference Architecture was approved and approved. Relevant personnel should use this to establish a global standard system with Chinese characteristics and change previous knowledge Aphasia in terms of property rights, technical standards, etc., enhance the right of international discourse and rulemaking.

It is true that standards can be adopted by law in many cases, but government governance application standards for blockchain technology cannot replace legislation. Because blockchain technology government governance application legislation can make standards more authoritative and mandatory. In addition, blockchain technology legislation can improve the quality of government governance application development and allow government personnel to use it with confidence; it can also make governance blockchain technology law-based and supervise and regulate block node violations.

(3) Continue to improve blockchain technology and better promote government governance

First, we must strengthen the construction of blockchain technology development teams and lay a talent base for the development of blockchain technology. Governing the country and rejuvenating the country lies in talent. The use of blockchain technology to promote the modernization of government governance is inseparable from the support of talents. The level of government technical talents also determines the effectiveness and effect of government governance. In order to make better use of and improve blockchain technology to promote government governance, it is necessary to "establish and improve a talent training system, create various forms of high-level talent training platforms, and cultivate a group of leaders and high-level innovation teams" [38] .

Second, we must strengthen the research and analysis of the security risks of blockchain technology in government governance, explore the establishment of a blockchain technology security guarantee system adapted to government governance, and guide developers and operators of blockchain government applications to strengthen industry self-discipline and implement security responsibilities. To promote the further development of blockchain technology. [39]

Third, we must improve the core technology of the blockchain and promote the infrastructure construction of the government governance of the blockchain. Although blockchain technology is a new round of technological revolution on a global scale, it is constrained by its existing flaws, resulting in its application prospects in government governance are not optimistic. [40] If it is not possible to solve the shortcomings of the blockchain technology itself and effectively reduce infrastructure costs, it will be difficult to deeply integrate with government governance. In order to make breakthroughs in blockchain technology, the government should closely track the development of blockchain technology, actively explore the development law, strengthen cooperation with universities, scientific research institutes and blockchain high-tech enterprises, and constantly develop and improve the special characteristics of government governance. application.

V. Conclusion

Blockchain as an emerging technology can help government governance reform and upgrade, enhance government governance capabilities, and promote national governance modernization. Although there are still limitations and deficiencies in the current blockchain technology itself, as Engels said, "once there is a technical need in society, this need will be able to push science forward more than ten universities" [41] . Therefore, the government should seize the opportunity and boldly try to actively guide and promote the improvement and development of blockchain technology on the basis of clarifying the needs of national governance and the tasks of government governance, and transforming advanced technologies into governance effectiveness.


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