Viewpoint | Scenario matching and technology maturity, why hasn't the blockchain made a large-scale application yet?

Author: Kao Cheng fact, Dr. cryptography, a founding partner of Shanghai enterprises hash information technology partner, China Computer Federation block chain committee members

Since the advent of the blockchain, people have been expecting large-scale blockchain applications to land on a large scale. But until now, the blockchain applications we can see can be divided into two categories, one is the public chain applications built on Ethereum, such as gaming, games, etc .; the other is built on the alliance chain or private chain Based on a single scenario application, such as blockchain certificate, blockchain invoice, etc. Really heavy blockchain applications have not yet appeared. Even the highly regarded central bank digital currency, DCEP, has bluntly stated that it will not fully adopt blockchain technology. Therefore, some people joked that the most successful application in the field of blockchain is still Bitcoin.

First, neither the lack of scenes nor the immature technology

Why is the blockchain technology entrusted to everyone's high hopes, and yet there is still no large-scale application of heavy applications? Is there really a lack of application scenarios that match blockchain technology, or, as some experts say, is blockchain technology still immature?

Blockchain can soon attract the attention of major countries and governments in the world soon. It can attract large capital investment from major institutions around the world. It must be because blockchain can bring huge changes to the world. Blockchain systems have the characteristics of decentralization, detrust to third parties, data cannot be tampered with and cannot be forged, collective system maintenance, and traceability of transactions.They can largely solve the problems of existing information systems and many systems in the current society. Problem, there is also an urgent need for this in real life, and it cannot be considered that there is a lack of application scenarios that match the blockchain in real life.

So, is there no massive application of blockchain on a large scale? Is the blockchain technology immature? Many people, including some technical experts, also believe that the reason why the blockchain is not applied well is that the blockchain technology is immature. So, what is blockchain technology? If we analyze the structure of the blockchain system, we will find that the blockchain system itself does not have its own unique technology, and the technologies that constitute the blockchain system are mostly mature technologies. Of course, for some specific application scenarios, there are indeed some technologies that need to be further developed and improved, such as secure multi-party computing, zero-knowledge proof, privacy protection, etc. But when the blockchain system was invented, including when the blockchain attracted the attention of major countries around the world and major institutions invested heavily, these technologies were also being developed. Major global countries and major institutions do not pay attention to blockchain because of technologies such as secure multi-party computing, zero-knowledge proof, and privacy protection, but rather focus on and invest in blockchain because of the key technical features presented by the blockchain system architecture. . Moreover, not all blockchain applications need to use technologies such as secure multiparty computing, zero-knowledge proof, and privacy protection.

Limitations of the blockchain system

We believe that an important reason why the blockchain has not been heavily implemented on a large scale so far is that people's perception of the blockchain has been biased, and the benefits that the blockchain system can bring are overemphasized. Little attention has been paid to the limitations of the blockchain system itself.

Blockchain is a special distributed system. All the data on the chain of this system needs to be authenticated by multiple parties. At the same time, the data is distributed and stored redundantly throughout the entire network. Through technical means and social governance, Ensure that the data on the chain cannot be tampered with or counterfeited. This is the most significant feature of a blockchain system that is different from previous systems. These characteristics are the advantages of the blockchain system, and the technical methods and methods that constitute these characteristics are also the limitations of the application of the blockchain system.

Limited by the constraints of broadband, storage, and computing resources, the data on the blockchain must be key data and core data. In terms of volume, it is small data, not large data. Deploy directly on the blockchain system. We can imagine, if the data of a large data center similar to Ali or Tencent each person saves a complete backup, how much storage space, how fast calculation speed, and how wide bandwidth can it carry? This is just Ali and Tencent, if you add the data of other systems involved in people's production and life? In addition, the speed at which humans collect and produce data is increasing exponentially. No matter how powerful the production capacity of broadband, storage and computing resources is, it is difficult to keep up with this exponential growth rate.

The entire network of the blockchain system's data is distributed and stored consistently, decentralized operation and collective maintenance of the system will inevitably make the performance of the blockchain system in terms of business processing much lower than the centralized system. The blockchain system needs to consume a lot of resources to complete the coordination between different nodes, and it is not possible to complete specific functions directly according to the rules and processes formulated by the central node, as in a centralized system. Even if special circumstances arise, in terms of speed of decision-making, a centralized system is much faster than a distributed collaborative system such as a blockchain.

In addition, the blockchain assumes that in terms of data possession and system maintenance, all nodes in the system have a completely equal status, and there are basically no or few differences in structural and functional design. The logic is inconsistent.

Therefore, the technical logic and the system characteristics of the blockchain system can only match a part of the complex industrial logic, but not the entire industrial business logic. Attempting to match industrial scenarios that include various forms and logics with the uniqueness of the blockchain system will inevitably cause most blockchain applications to be difficult to land, and even most blockchain applications cannot match the industrial logic.

Blockchain is a supplement to, enrichment and improvement of the Internet business model

To match with complex industrial scenarios and play the proper role of the blockchain system, the blockchain must integrate with other systems, give play to their strengths, and avoid their own shortcomings.

At the business level, most business systems do not need to fully share all data in the system. Therefore, most of the data is destined to be local rather than global, and data sharing must be hierarchical and localized according to business logic.

At the technical level, it is impossible for most systems to share all data among all nodes. Except for special cases like Bitcoin and Ethereum, the application scenarios are simple, the system is extremely flat, and the amount of data itself is small and relevant to everyone's interests. But even for systems such as Bitcoin and Ethereum, as the system's operating time continues, the amount of data generated by the system is getting larger and larger. The needs of business development at the application layer have led to the subsequent transformation and attempts of various blockchain systems based on the Bitcoin and Ethereum system architecture.

Just as edge computing is a supplement and improvement to cloud computing, so is blockchain, a supplement, enrichment, and improvement to previous Internet business models. Data redundancy under the previous Internet method is required to ensure data disaster backup from the perspective of ensuring system security, while data redundancy under the blockchain method is required to make data transparent, non-tamperable and forgeable. It has not appeared in the previous Internet business model.

Fourth, the N ways of blockchain application landing

Blockchain, as a type of distributed application, must be structurally combined with other system architectures, including various other distributed architectures, and even a centralized architecture. From the perspective of industrial logic, not just from the perspective of technical logic, Real business scenarios need to construct an information system architecture, complement each other, and match industry and business logic.

1.Blockchain as a functional component

The first way for the application of the blockchain business scene is to use the blockchain as a functional component, which is embedded in the existing business logic and system architecture of the industry, and implements the corresponding data and information in a blockchain manner. Sharing to ensure that data and information cannot be tampered with and forged. This way is the easiest and most convenient way to implement a blockchain application.

Such as business or hospital business management systems. This type of management system itself is a centralized and hierarchical application system. Team or department management is just a management unit within the application system. However, the data and information related to the interests of all persons, such as work assignments, performance evaluations, rewards and punishments, within the team or section, need to be recognized, disclosed, and used as historical evidence by the team or section. Naturally there will be some other data with this need. Then at this time, you can share related data and information within the business management unit of the team or section. By embedding the function of the blockchain, ensure that these shared data and information are recognized by the relevant person or owner, and do To be unforgeable and unforgeable. Teams or departments other than teams or departments are neither necessary nor entitled to access these internal data. The higher-level organization of a team or department, in accordance with the hierarchical management logic responsible for each level, generally does not need to have an in-depth understanding of this internal data of the team or department. Because of business management requirements, most of the time only the master of the corresponding data The result is just fine.

There are two other types of data and information sharing requirements in business or hospital business management systems. One type is still based on departmental management. For example, leaders above a certain level in an enterprise or hospital need to share certain types of data and information. In addition to the top-down notifications of this type of information, it is more likely to involve business cooperation and business coordination between various teams or sections, but for the sake of streamlining management processes and improving management efficiency, it is not necessary or possible to transfer all All personnel involved are included in this management system. The data and information related to the business cooperation and coordination between the various teams or sections, especially the recognition and certification of the leadership of the relevant parties, and historically stored in a way that cannot be tampered with and forged. The other type is a specific task system based on specific tasks, which needs to cross teams or departments, and even across different levels. This type of system is not only a line-shaped organization in organizational management, but also a specific organization Task team formed temporarily. There is a large number of organizational collaborations within such organizations, and there are a large number of situations where responsibilities and rights are not clear and mismatched. The preservation of corresponding data and information also needs to be solved by blockchain technology.

2.Blockchain as the basic structure of the system

The second way for the application of the blockchain business scenario is to use the blockchain as the basic architecture of the entire system, and share the corresponding data and information among the nodes in the system. This method will be the most important way for the blockchain to function at the industry or industry level. In this way, the business nodes in the system architecture are based on their respective business positioning, and based on data sharing that cannot be tampered with and forged, it is possible to realize the entire business process by de-centering and de-intermediating the original business process. Refactoring and optimization. The blockchain infrastructure of the entire system does not affect each business node's own information system construction and carry out its own business within its original business scope.

Such as cross-border clearing systems. For cross-border clearing between different institutions using the blockchain, the clearing data must be approved by the relevant clearing nodes and stored by each clearing node in a way that cannot be tampered with and forged. In a cross-border clearing system constructed with a blockchain, there is no traditional clearing house or central counterparty. According to the existing rules, clearing nodes and clearing nodes directly complete cross-border clearing while conducting business, which not only improves the system's clearing efficiency, but also eliminates the system overhead that has to be paid due to the existence of clearing houses and central counterparties. At the same time, each clearing subject involved in cross-border clearing is behind one or several institutions with rich business content. The system architecture of the internal business represented by these clearing nodes may be a centralized organizational structure, or a traditional distributed organizational structure, or a blockchain-type organizational structure. These business systems are bound to operate in accordance with their business logic under the organizational structure of the cross-border settlement of the entire system's blockchain, and perform various businesses through the systems behind cross-border settlement business nodes and other cross-border business settlement nodes. Interaction with data.

Another example is the supply chain management system. The supply chain management system implemented with the blockchain will restructure the business processes of the entire supply chain by sharing business data between related nodes, removing data centers and intermediary links that were no longer needed due to data monopoly. Improve the overall system synergy efficiency and the overall profit level of the system. But every node in the supply chain management system must also run a set of management systems behind it. These management systems play their respective roles under the overall blockchain architecture of the supply chain management system.

3. Hybrid and parallel of multiple blockchains

It is also possible that multiple blockchain systems exist concurrently in the same business system.

The cross-chain decentralized trading system we developed, CCDEX, uses both public and private chains. The CCDEX trading system will process clearing and transactions in a hierarchical manner. The clearing system is a public chain system for all trading users. A multi-matching node competition mechanism is used in the transaction matching process, and each matching node independently completes transaction matching for all trading nodes on the entire network. Because the CCDEX architecture is in a completely distributed network environment, there will be differences in the transaction orders received by different matching nodes in the same time period. During the block generation cycle of the underlying blockchain system, according to the principle of maximum trading volume, the matching result of the matching node with the largest trading volume in this time period is taken as the final matching result of the current block and recorded on the blockchain. Matching nodes need to be applied and approved. All matching nodes are also the same type of node in this scenario, and the business scenario facing it is also a single business scenario. Therefore, a private chain system is formed in the transaction matching link.

4. Blockchain constitutes a blockchain network

Whether it is to embed the blockchain as a functional component in an existing system structure or the blockchain as the basic structure of the entire system, it is the organic integration of the blockchain with other architectures. In addition, according to the data content and sharing scope, the same type of nodes that need to realize data sharing can be constructed as a blockchain system, and on this basis, different blockchain systems that have business contacts and data connectivity can be connected. Get together to form a blockchain network.

In order to study the different constituent structures of the blockchain network, we need to further analyze the classification and definition of the blockchain.

The private chain is generally defined as an access block chain within an institution or organization, the alliance chain is defined as an access block chain oriented to multiple business entities, and the public chain is defined as a non-permitted chain oriented to any subject.

Our previous articles have analyzed the definition of private chain and alliance chain . We think there are obvious ambiguities in the above definitions. For example, is JPM Coin issued by JPMorgan Chase an alliance chain or a private chain? JPM Coin is generally considered to be an alliance chain system, because JPM Coin is oriented to multiple agents. However, these entities are institutional customers within JPMorgan's own business system. From this perspective, it should be more appropriate to define them as private chains. Libra, which Facebook plans to release, has a similar definition. In this regard, we propose that the private chain is an access block chain for a single scenario and a single user type, and the alliance chain is an access block chain for a multi-scenario and multi-user type. In this way, multiple types of blockchain networks can be constructed.

(1) The alliance chain system is constructed from the private chain. Each private chain system deals with a single scenario business for a single type of user. When these private chains are associated with the private chain's business, it is natural to build an alliance chain system on the basis of many private chains, and the alliance chain system will handle complex services oriented to multiple business scenarios and multiple user types. For example, the supply chain management system blockchain we mentioned above. This type of system is an alliance chain architecture in general, and is oriented to multiple business scenarios in the supply chain business and different types of users upstream and downstream of the business. But each node in the supply chain business scenario is not just a single business node, but behind it is a complete information system. If the information system where each node is located only faces a single business scenario and a single user type and uses a blockchain architecture, then this system is an alliance chain system built by a private chain.

(2) A private chain system is built from the private chain. If we analyze the consensus mechanism of DPOS, we can find that, in fact, the consensus formation method adopted by DPOS is a private chain system built on the basis of private chains. The DPOS consensus mechanism is generally a single business scenario for voting or election and forming consensus, and the nodes facing it are also nodes of the same type. The group behind each DPOS node is still the same type of user node, and the business scenario facing it is still a single business scenario, but due to the consideration of the efficiency of consensus formation, the permissions of these nodes are divided into different level.

(3) A private chain system is established by the alliance chain. Each supply chain management system for a multi-business scenario and a multi-user type built using a blockchain system is an alliance chain system. When multiple alliance chain systems are required or required in a certain aspect, for example, the business of supply chain management system A is limited to area A, and the business of supply chain management system B is limited to area B. When business transactions occur between area A and area B, When coordinating transportation vehicles, only one node responsible for cross-region transportation dispatch is selected in the A alliance chain, and one node responsible for cross-region transportation dispatch is selected in the B alliance chain, as well as the C alliance chain, D alliance chain, and so on. It is possible to build a private chain system on each alliance chain system, and coordinate the vehicle transportation scheduling between the alliance chains to the nodes responsible for vehicle transportation scheduling in each alliance chain system.

(4) The alliance chain system is established by the alliance chain. For example, a feature-rich electronic product like a mobile phone is composed of N different functional components, and each functional component is respectively composed of M components according to its specific internal structure. Then the component manufacturer A1 participating in the production of functional component A , A2, …, Am and component assembly manufacturer Am + 1 built an alliance chain system A based on the data types and quantity of these components, logistics distribution, fund settlement, information circulation and other data content. In addition, component suppliers and component assembly manufacturers that produce other functional components of this product have also established different alliance chain systems B, C, D, E … on top of these alliance chain systems, production This product's assembly manufacturer X and N functional component assembly manufacturers Am + 1, Bm + 1, Cm + 1, Dm + 1, …, Nm + 1 builds a super alliance on the basis of various alliance chains Chain system.

According to different business needs, we can even build multiple levels of nesting from different blockchain systems to form a complex blockchain network.

As for the public chain system, we have not conducted in-depth analysis.

Because the public chain is aimed at non-persistent people and is a non-permitted chain, it is difficult for users of the public chain system to establish a strong trust relationship, it is difficult to carry overly complex business applications , and it is impossible to form complex business relationships. The public chains we have seen so far are all non-permitted chains oriented to a single business scenario and a single user type. As for whether we can see non-permitted chains for multiple business scenarios and multiple user types in the future, it remains to be seen. If this type of non-permitted chain oriented to multiple business scenarios and multiple user types can occur in the future, we will temporarily name this non-permitted chain oriented to multiple business scenarios and multiple user types as the public alliance chain. Then, according to the logic of the permission chain above, a public alliance chain can be constructed from a public chain.

Of course, we can also build different private or alliance chains on the basis of the current public chain. If it is constructed using blockchain technology, then each scenic area or restaurant is a public chain system to its customers, because these scenic areas or restaurants cannot determine who is his customer and who is not his customer, so they can only adopt a non-permission system. But at the same time, these scenic spots or restaurants as a node must be a node in the industrial and commercial or tax blockchain system. However, the blockchain of the industrial and commercial or tax system must be a private or alliance chain, not a public chain system.

In addition, there may be cases where different private or alliance chains are used as one node of the public or public alliance chain. For example, the current decentralized exchanges, because they are aimed at non-specific users, their blockchain system must be presented as a public chain architecture as a whole. These decentralized exchanges face both individual user nodes and institutional customer nodes. The business architecture behind these institutional customers, if they also adopt the blockchain architecture, may be either a private chain system or an alliance chain system, similar to the institutional customers in current traditional exchange systems.

V. Business logic transformation from "+ blockchain" to "blockchain +"

Blockchain project application landing, as far as the current scenario is concerned, there are two different application landing modes, and different application landing modes also correspond to different business logic reform paths. If the relevant classification of the Internet is applied, "Internet +" refers to the transformation of the industry using the logic of the Internet, then "Blockchain +" refers to the transformation of the industry using the logic of the blockchain, eliminating information asymmetry through data sharing, and ultimately To achieve the purpose of restructuring and optimizing business processes; if "+ Internet" refers to the introduction of Internet technology on the basis of industry to enhance the level of information and digitalization, then "+ Blockchain" refers to the introduction of blocks on the basis of industry Chain technology system to improve data transparency and ensure that data cannot be tampered with or forged.

"+ Internet" is easier to implement than "Internet +". From a practical point of view, "+ Internet" is also the premise and basis for implementing "Internet +". "+ Internet" merely realizes the informationization and digitization of existing industries, while "Internet +" is the transformation and transformation of the industry with digital logic. "+ Blockchain" is also easier to implement than "Blockchain +", because from the perspective of actual application landing, it is difficult for an industry or an industry to fully implement the "Blockchain +" strategy from scratch. Most industries Or the business still has to pass the "+ blockchain", that is, the introduction of the blockchain technology system from individual scenes in individual links. On the basis that the data of individual scenes in individual links cannot be tampered with or forged, the "area" is completed in individual scenes in individual links first. The business logic of "Blockchain +" is changed, and then the logic from "+ blockchain" to "blockchain +" is gradually extended to the entire industry or industry to complete the blockchainization of the entire industry or industry Makeover.

We have previously given an example of retrofitting equipment maintenance systems through blockchain technology. In the management system of a residential area or school, equipment management is one of its core businesses, and a general residential area or school will also have a equipment management center. When the user finds that a certain device is not used normally, he will report it to the equipment management center through relevant channels or channels, and the equipment management center will send someone to repair it. Due to factors such as the untimely dispatch of the equipment management center or the lack of responsibility of the equipment maintenance personnel, equipment failures may not be eliminated in a timely manner. It is even possible that the same equipment was just repaired by the maintenance staff, but for some reason, the equipment failed again, resulting in unclear division of responsibilities.

If the equipment status data is added to the chain through the installation of equipment sensors, and these data are distributed to the relevant personnel through the blockchain system, then if the equipment fails, the maintenance personnel will be able to directly repair it. Reporting, no need for equipment management center dispatch. After maintenance, the status of the equipment is also uploaded to the blockchain system, and maintenance personnel no longer need to report the maintenance results to the equipment management center, and the equipment management center does not need to feedback the maintenance results to the user. Even if the equipment fails again, it can be judged from the on-chain data that it is a failure that occurred after maintenance by the maintenance staff, or that the failure has not been ruled out by the maintenance staff because of failure to repair.

If this system can be operated for a period of time, everyone will find that the equipment management center is unnecessary. Therefore, the equipment management center can be streamlined, which not only improves efficiency, but also optimizes the business management process of equipment maintenance. .

This example is to implement the "+ blockchain" to share relevant data in a non-tamperable and forgeable manner between relevant personnel. Only then can the blockchain optimize business process functions, and then it is natural to get " Blockchain + "effect.

Equipment management is only a single scenario and link in the management of residential communities or schools. If on this basis, more blockchain systems are introduced in other scenarios and links, and layers are built on top of different blockchain systems. A higher-range and larger blockchain system will push the logic of "+ blockchain" to a larger range, and it is possible to achieve the effect of "blockchain +" to a greater extent to a greater extent.

The difference between "+ blockchain" and "blockchain +" is that "+ blockchain" can be completed through the construction and transformation of information systems, but "blockchain +" is more of a business level Tasks can be accomplished naturally without the introduction of blockchain. If it is planned to remove a certain institution or a certain link from the beginning, a lot of work on the application of blockchain may be difficult to carry out and promote.

Among the several blockchain application landing methods we mentioned above, "blockchain as a functional component" and "hybrid parallelism of multiple blockchains" are the introduction of blockchain in certain scenarios and links in real life. The technical system, "Blockchain constitutes a blockchain network" and "Blockchain as a system infrastructure" are the expansion of the business logic of "+ Blockchain" to a larger extent.

When promoting the "+ blockchain" business strategy, it is important to understand that the introduction of blockchain in any scenario or business link requires a certain cost. These costs include, to a minimum, the bandwidth, storage, and computing resources necessary for consistent distribution and redundant storage of data throughout the network. The more ambitious the role of the blockchain system, the more resources need to be consumed. Therefore, if the two types of large-scale blockchain applications, "Blockchain constitutes a blockchain network" and "Blockchain as a system infrastructure," cannot bring about optimization of system processes and overall efficiency, blockchain technology The introduction and application of the system will likely be worthless.

There are many and many scenarios in which blockchain can play a role in real life. Some can be found by direct observation, some need imagination, and some can only be obtained after in-depth analysis of business scenarios and business logic. Some scenarios just need to be “+ blockchain”, it is not necessary to go deep to the level of “blockchain +”, and some will naturally evolve to “blockchain” while implementing “+ blockchain” + "Level, and some also take time to evolve slowly. After there are more and more examples of "+ blockchain", and it has played a good demonstration role, it is possible to carry out more "blockchain +" in a larger range and deeper. Blockchain Ultimately, the role of changing production relationships and business processes is likely to finally emerge.

Six.Blockchain technology and technological architecture change

The application of blockchain and the integration of blockchain architecture with other architectures cannot be separated from the changes in blockchain technology and technical architecture. Blindly following the current mainstream public or alliance chain technology and technology system paradigm, without the need to improve and expand the blockchain technology and technical structure from the needs of business logic and system docking, it is difficult to meet the needs of the application of the blockchain system.

1. Build a lightweight blockchain technology architecture

If the blockchain is a functional component of other systems, it is appropriate to adopt a relatively lightweight blockchain system architecture and embed it in other system structures. At present, whether it is a public chain system or a so-called alliance chain system, the architecture is relatively complicated. For example, the equipment maintenance case we mentioned above. In this example, as long as the blockchain system can obtain data from sensors and distribute the data to all nodes in the blockchain system, ensure that these data are collected, transmitted, and stored. It is sufficient that the process is not forged or tampered with. From the perspective of the architecture of the blockchain, only the data layer and the network layer are required. At most, the consensus layer is added, and neither the incentive layer nor the contract layer is required, nor does it require different nodes to compete for accounting rights. .

When multiple chains coexist in a system and a blockchain network is formed by different blockchains, it is necessary to return to the original features of the blockchain system, deconstruct the existing blockchain architecture, and remove those unnecessary Functional components, and according to the needs of the upper-level business system, the related technologies are recombined to meet the business needs of the current system. This is not only the need for the current blockchain system to land on a local scale, but also the need for the future blockchain system to play a larger role.

2. Create cross-chain and cross-architecture data interaction tools

Whether it is the integration of the blockchain system and other systems, or the integration of different blockchain systems and blockchain systems in terms of architecture, it involves data interaction between different systems. The data interaction between the blockchain system and the blockchain system is mainly cross-chain technology. The data interaction between the blockchain system and other systems requires further analysis of the architecture of different systems and the storage structure and presentation of the interactive data. .

Some data interactions can be done in a bridged manner. Take for example the aforementioned scenic spots or restaurants. The data of the public chain system constructed by the scenic area or restaurant facing consumers is definitely not the data required by the private chain or alliance chain system of industry and commerce or taxation. Therefore, a bridge node needs to be set up between these two types of blockchain systems. For data conversion and docking.

But for most cross-chain applications of blockchain systems and blockchain systems, bridging is certainly not a good way. This method matches the data structures on both sides directly at the application layer. Whenever a new blockchain system is introduced, it needs to complete the docking and matching with other blockchain systems according to its technical characteristics. The workload is large and tedious. . If there are too many types of connected blockchains, it will inevitably lead to excessive consumption of application layer resources on the structural transformation of data, which will directly reduce the system efficiency. The most ideal cross-chain function is best placed as a component at the bottom of the system. It is seamlessly called for upper-layer applications through standard interfaces, and there is no need to adapt the target system.

3.Build a blockchain technology system with richer functions and structures

In the face of real business scenarios, if the blockchain is to play its unique role and function, it must necessarily be extensively integrated with other information systems in terms of structure. However, the current technical architecture of the blockchain is relatively solid, and the external interface method is too single. This is not only the reason why the current application of the blockchain system is difficult, but it will also restrict the future development of the blockchain.

Such as the public chain. Due to the non-permissive nature, public chain user roles show a high degree of homogeneity. Ethereum and EOS are actually exploring improvements in this regard, that is, how to achieve role differentiation on the public chain system.

By introducing smart contracts, Ethereum attempts to match a variety of scenarios through code at the business or application layer, but this matching is based on the full disclosure of the underlying data, no access to the system, and no difference in roles, and it is destined to only match To a small number of business scenarios, and cannot match the richer industrial logic.

EOS deploys 21 super nodes worldwide to distinguish data physically and logically. Its efforts are worthy of recognition, but its infrastructure determines that EOS can still only match part of the business scenarios and single user types in real life. It is difficult to form a rich and complex industrial logic.

Because the public chain needs to be run by a collective maintenance system, it will inevitably bring the homogeneity of user roles at the system management level. At the same time, it tries to greatly enrich the upper-layer applications, so that the user role presents more heterogeneous factors, which brings more It is difficult to coordinate the goals. Therefore, if you want to match richer business logic and play the role of the blockchain in more business scenarios, you need to return to the underlying technical logic level of the blockchain and make greater adjustments and re-engineering of the technical architecture and technical goals. Structure and even break some basic prerequisites and assumptions of public and alliance chains to enrich and improve the blockchain technology system architecture.

4. Create more tools to differentiate business roles

In order to make the blockchain match as many business scenarios as possible, in addition to transforming the blockchain architecture, related tools can also be introduced in some specific links of the blockchain architecture to achieve role differentiation. For example, the design of a system that uses a single private key to store all digital assets is difficult to meet the digital asset management needs of non-individual customers, including digital asset custody, mining farms, mining pools, and digital asset exchanges. The digital currencies of central banks in the future, and more and more digital assets in the future, will also face the same problem. This requires a transformation of the system design of a single private key, such as the use of secret sharing technology to split a complete private key, one person to keep a complete private key and giving it management rights to all assets, instead of multiple Individuals manage their own private key shards and jointly store all assets. This scheme can also introduce a threshold scheme, that is, it does not necessarily require that all people perform their duties to complete the management of assets, but based on the performance of duties by a specific number of people, the management and transfer of assets can be achieved to match real life Many complex situations that you may face.

At the same time, it can also introduce a time series relationship to make necessary provisions for the order in which different personnel perform their duties to meet the needs of business processes in real life. Or as our team has completed, each party independently generates their own private key shards, based on secure multi-party computing technology, generates the corresponding wallet or escrow account address, mathematically guarantees the security of their private key shards, and then guarantees the wallet and The security of escrow account assets, rather than technologies like secret sharing, the full private key has the risk and possibility of being leaked.