Source: National Governance Weekly
Editor's Note: The original title was "The Application Prospect of Blockchain Technology in Sudden Public Safety Incidents"
From March 29 to April 1, General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out during his inspection in Zhejiang: "Using big data, cloud computing, blockchain, artificial intelligence and other cutting-edge technologies to promote innovation in urban management methods, management models, and management concepts, from digitalization From intelligent to intelligent, making the city smarter and smarter is the only way to promote the modernization of the urban governance system and governance capabilities, and has broad prospects. "
Blockchain is an important technical means to achieve "digital governance" and "digital epidemic prevention". With the help of blockchain, a credible comprehensive data information platform is constructed, real-time data is coordinated, and the traceability of data and information is established. The effective method of "scientific prevention and precise implementation" is also an important starting point for the modernization of urban governance.
Challenges faced by epidemic prevention and control data information systems
In the prevention and control of the New Coronary Pneumonia epidemic, the challenges faced by data or information systems are mainly reflected in three aspects: First, the urgency and complexity of the epidemic pose great challenges to the superior coordination system, and the establishment of emergency information linkage between departments The difficulty of co-ordination increases; second, the informatization qualifications of grass-roots organizations, including the health system and charitable organizations, are limited. The transparency, timeliness, and credibility of the information released are different from those expected by the public. A lot of problems have been exposed in the work of ""; the third is that the public is easily surrounded by various information waves under the condition of asymmetric information and lagging information, and it is difficult to distinguish true from false in the first place. In short, the continuous deepening of the epidemic prevention and control and the orderly advancement of resumption of production and production have put forward higher requirements for the scientific, refined and intelligent work of epidemic prevention and control, and also for the construction of public safety that can respond to possible future emergencies The effective information system of events raises new issues.
We here use the concept of "fragility" to measure the role and quality of data systems in emergency public events. This concept was first proposed by American scholar GF White in 1974, and has been widely used in the fields of natural sciences such as ecology and disasters, and social sciences such as sociology and economics. Vulnerability includes three dimensions: disaster severity, sensitivity and resilience. For a comprehensive data information system, the degree of disaster is reflected in the impact of sudden accidents, and whether the acquisition and publication of information can meet the needs of analysis and judgment of multiple complexity factors; the sensitivity is manifested in the ability to establish timely and credible Data and information-aware networks to respond to rapid changes in the epidemic situation, and on this basis, provide powerful data support for scientific and effective data aggregation and analysis; resilience refers to the fact that data information systems perform actual tasks, even long-term tasks The presented tolerance, fault tolerance and self-correction, and the credibility formed on this basis.
Improve the comprehensive data information platform based on blockchain technology
01Construction of "block grid" mechanism
The "block grid" mechanism refers to the improvement of grid management methods based on blockchain technology, the realization of information certification and traceability, the implementation of the main responsibility, and the strengthening of the sense of responsibility. The truth and accuracy of basic data is the prerequisite for upper-layer data analysis and application, and is also the basis for scientific decision-making and judgment. In a certain period, we used the system advantages to mobilize a lot of manpower and material resources to conduct a net-type investigation and implement grid-based epidemic management, which initially achieved good results, but some problems were also exposed in the implementation of grassroots operations. The focus of these issues is that the implementation of the epidemic prevention and control policy is not thorough and solid; the implementation and arrangement of superiors are not implemented seriously or perfunctory; falsification, concealment, and omission of epidemic information; "form anti-epidemic", "deliberately leaving traces" "1 Phenomenon such as "turning it around" has occurred from time to time, which not only caused a partial idling of unified deployment decisions, but also brought many uncertainties to the overall research and judgment of the epidemic. The objective reasons for these problems can be attributed to three aspects: one is "showing multiple doors" and the grassroots is struggling to cope with it; the second is the lack of appraisal of the effectiveness of implementation at the grassroots level, and some assessments are too frequent and mechanical; the third is the lack of data The source and operation of the certificate and traceability.
Therefore, from a technical point of view, in order to further establish and improve the grid management system, we need to focus on solving two problems in the data information system: One is the question of confidence in the quality of the epidemic data; the second is the question of supervision of personnel at the grass-roots level and at all levels. The technical characteristics of the blockchain make it possible to combine and strengthen the existing grid-based governance platform, effectively guarantee the quality of data, improve the real-time nature of data collection, and reduce governance costs. In the grassroots grid, you can fully mobilize the masses to participate in the real-time data collection through the group intelligence perception and digital signature technology; through the blockchain technology, the data source can be traced, and the group of "who proves and who is responsible" is further established. Intelligent data collection incentive mechanism. On the grassroots grid, the grid is divided into hierarchical management, and blockchain information storage and traceability mechanisms are established at all levels of grids respectively, and the main responsibilities of all levels of grids are implemented from technical means to form "mass participation, The system of prevention and control of epidemic situation with grading responsibility and supervision by everyone. At the same time, fully considering the difficulty of blockchain deployment in the basic grid, through the form of blockchain cloud, it provides a concise and transparent cloud interface for grid data operations, so that blockchain-related operations are fully integrated into the existing grid governance platform. No additional burden on the grassroots data operator.
02Build a "block interconnection" data sharing mechanism
"Block interconnection" is to build a blockchain-based data exchange system on the basis of a block grid to exchange and share medical resources, various material supplies, transportation, communities and other cross-departmental information. In sudden public events, scientific and precise implementation of policies requires a full grasp of the actual situation through big data. In epidemic prevention and control, it is even more necessary to gather information from various departments such as public security, civil affairs, and health, and to coordinate resources and forces in civil aviation, transportation, logistics, and business. The reality is that each department and even all units in the same department have self-built systems, so it is inevitable to cause repeated data collection, multi-head collection, and multiple collections when performing tasks, which will add burden to the grassroots work. For example, the media reported that a total of 12 staff members in a community in Changsha, Hunan, must undertake inspection, coordination, publicity, disinfection and other work every day. Under such intense work pressure, two staff members must also be arranged as cousins and cousins. Responsible for the registration and reporting tasks of various forms, causing serious waste to the grassroots prevention and control forces, and even affecting the front-line epidemic prevention and control effects. The delay of information transmission and communication will also affect the accurate grasp and judgment of the actual situation.
From the perspective of scientific governance, the aggregation and aggregation of diverse information is essential, and the foundation of data integration can be connected to various "data islands" by means of blockchain, and the data catalog and some data of decentralized autonomous information centers and main institutions On the chain, relying on the blockchain to establish a distributed trust mechanism, using the blockchain's consensus algorithm to achieve information exchange between multiple subjects, ensuring data communication security through security protocols, preventing data tampering, and verifying the data on the chain through a certification authority. These technologies can solve the problem of information transmission delay caused by the "point-to-point data exchange" and "centralized data sharing" commonly used in current data aggregation, and can also avoid the data quality and cost problems caused by repeated collection and avoid multiple parties. The problem of multiple and heterogeneous data integration caused by data collection, and reduce the cost of data sharing, promote data flow, and significantly improve data quality and exchange efficiency. In addition, the connection and sharing of data can technically reduce the breeding grounds of formalism like "table epidemic prevention" and protect the enthusiasm of grassroots staff.
03Establish a unified information publishing platform with authority and credibility
Based on the block grid and block interconnection and sharing mechanism, we need to further rely on the blockchain to establish an authoritative and credible unified information publishing platform. As a "trust machine", blockchain has the functions of information certification and traceability, and can technically provide the public with a credible information source and authoritative information material for news media at all levels. In this epidemic prevention and control battle, the asymmetry of information has brought many problems. The asymmetry mainly exists in three aspects: the information asymmetry between the local system and the central system, the information asymmetry between the departments, and the information asymmetry between the public ’s demand for information and the release of real-time information. If you have a unified and credible relevant information release platform, you may be able to avoid one-sided treatment of individual front-line medical personnel in the early stage of the outbreak, so as to effectively play the role of news and public opinion supervision and help to block the outbreak at the source ; Maybe when the epidemic escalates, the relevant organizations and communities will recognize the severity of the epidemic earlier and reduce the spread of the epidemic to a lower rate; maybe when the epidemic prevention and control battle is tough, public opinion and news media supervision The action can get more timely and positive guidance, effectively avoiding the "rumors run faster than the truth" situation. The block grid and block interconnection mechanism provide data support for the unified information publishing platform, and the unified information release platform is also the ultimate attribution of the information operation of the block grid and block interconnection mechanism. By relying on the unified information publishing platform of the blockchain, the source of information can be technically guaranteed to be accurate and traceable, so that the information release can be original and clear, and the real information can be able to withstand the test of time. Responsible for time, history and people.
Blockchain technology is a machine that can build trust, and machine trust is a low-cost and efficient trust. Information can be trusted through "uplink"; trust can be transferred through "cross-chain". Through the combination of blockchain technology, in the construction of a data epidemic prevention and control platform, a "block grid" vertical epidemic data collection and aggregation system, a "block interconnection" horizontal data exchange and sharing mechanism, and credible unified data can be built Release the platform to realize the development transformation from information construction to trust construction, from trust construction to confidence construction, and provide data-driven support for epidemic prevention and control and response to potential emergency public safety incidents in the future.