Source of this article: Zhejiang Online, original title "Xiaoshan Dai villages and towns use digital technology to explore new roads for grassroots co-governance and sharing, when" blockchain "enters the countryside"
Author: Xiao Wen Zhang Cong stay
The spring breeze blows, thousands of acres of wild Yingshan red are opening up in the Yunshi Mountains in Daicun Town, Xiaoshan District, Hangzhou City. The mountains and wild red clouds are like the gifts of the mountains, making it popular with many city travelers.
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An experiment of rural governance named "Yingshanhong" made the villagers in Daicun Town enthusiastic and changed the appearance of the village. The most different from the previous autonomous exploration is that the blockchain concept and technology have been introduced here. Blockchain is a technology, but it is also a production relationship. Social governance is a very important field of practice. The key is, do villagers buy it? Has the village changed?
The exploration of Dai Village may open up a new way of rural governance.
Stimulate Villagers' Participation Consciousness, Rural Credit System Needs Rebuilding Urgently
Every year in March and April, along the national mountaineering and fitness trail in the mountain forests of the west of Daicun Town, among the green mountains and trees, you can see a large area of wild Yingshan red covered in it. Yingshanhong grows slowly and grows into a wild plant with a height of more than one person. It takes at least 50 years. The villagers of Yamashita especially cherish the good omen of this red fire.
However, in recent years, many villagers have found that the number of Yingshanhong is less. The pits after the digging are like broken wounds. The distressed villagers took the initiative to inspect the mountains in twos and threes. Last year, several village cadres took the initiative to protect Yingshanhong, and more villagers joined the "Yunshan Qunshan Yingshanhong Guardian Team" as volunteers to take turns in patrolling the mountains.
In the eyes of many cadres in Daicun Township, this action is more like a gratifying accident, because elements such as "spontaneous" and "voluntary" are rarely seen in daily governance. "It is normal for villagers to not participate in, do not cooperate with, and do not" provoke "village affairs." Walking in the fields, Yu Guoyan, secretary of the town party committee, experienced a lot. When village affairs involve their own interests, villagers often do not buy them. The daily management and construction of villages are often carried out by grassroots cadres who are shaving their heads.
Yu Guoyan was embarrassed during an environmental hygiene inspection in Fangxi Village. Near the villagers' houses, there are piles of construction materials and pots and pots that are not used for many years. Seeing that the garbage has piled up on the road, social workers are often blindfolded when they come to clean. Some people put dogs to bite people: "It's your government's responsibility to clean the village, but things at my door can't be disturbed." Some village women questioned social workers: "Since the village pays to hire people, why don't you have shit at my door? Sweep in time? "Every house sweeps the snow in front of its door, which makes many village cadres feel chilly.
I am willing to devote my energy to a flowering red mountain. Why do I always "stand by and watch" for other village affairs? During the interview, many villagers said the truth:
Participating in village activities is often "no good", it is better to bury your own one-third of an acre;
Although the village regulations and civil agreements advocate, there are no clear rules for rewards and punishments, and most of the time rely on "human relations" and "face";
I have spent a lot of energy on myself, and the village cadres may not always "see in the eyes" …
"The bottleneck problem that needs to be broken through in rural revitalization is how to stimulate villagers' sense of participation," said Deng Guosheng, deputy dean of the School of Public Administration of Tsinghua University, when he surveyed Daicun Town. Dai villages and towns are gradually realizing that they are facing difficulties encountered by many townships in their autonomy: the rural credit system is weak, the governance subject is ambiguous, and the governance system is imperfect, and it is urgent to rebuild the rural credit system.
According to the opinions of the villagers, the new system must be able to scientifically evaluate the contribution and contribution of each villager, record every participation, and rely on these open and transparent data to provide corresponding incentives for the villagers. Jin Cong, the mayor of Daicun Township with a background in computer and management, found that these needs fit well with the concept of "blockchain" that is currently on fire.
"The core concept of the blockchain is decentralization and non-tampering, or it may be used by us." The idea of combining blockchain and village governance is fermented in Jin Cong's heart: each villager is an adaptive personality subject. The collection of daily behavior data can give portraits of villagers, and the points records obtained by villagers through contributions can be transparent and tamper-resistant by means of blockchain technology. He named this relatively fair, transparent, and easy-to-implement new system "Yingshanhong Plan."
This whimsical idea was approved by Chen Gang, Dean of the School of Computer Science of Zhejiang University. "Blockchain is a technology, but it is also a production relationship. Social governance is a very important field of practice." With the support of Zhejiang University, in July 2019, Zhejiang University Computer Innovation Technology Institute and Dai Cunzhen cooperated. Jointly developed the "Yingshan Red Rural Governance Digital Platform".
Every common people is like a mountain red, ordinary and unremarkable, but when the whole mountain is full, it can form a shocking beauty. Isn't this gathered civilian power just what is needed for good governance of the countryside? The “Yingshanhong Plan”, which returns villagers to the main body of self-government, has taken root in Daicun Township.
Exclusive two-dimensional code to monitor each other and promote mutual points
How does the seemingly "tall" blockchain land? As soon as Jin Cong's idea came out, many village community cadres had been confused. Some people think that it is an "architectural" castle in the sky, and there are fears and hardships, but only Sun Guozhu, the village secretary of Dashigai Village, is eager to try.
Like many villages, young people in Dashigai Village mostly go out to work, and the village lacks distinctive industries. "To make the people affordable, we must start with the revitalization of the industry. Farmers and chicken farmers can take advantage of it, and other villages and towns can easily follow suit." The town decided to take "growing vegetables" as an important part of the "Yingshan Red Plan". Pilot in Dashigai Village.
"Blockchain" planted into vegetable fields, a "land revolution" kicked off in Dashigai Village. By arranging the illegal auxiliary houses and self-retained land, the 200 acres of vegetable plots scattered in front of the house and the house are set up by the village to irrigate the irrigation system, and the villagers participating in the project can claim one piece for free per head. In order to cultivate the "standard for ordinary people to eat by themselves", what kind of dishes to grow here is planned by the platform uniformly, fertilization and pesticides must also be checked by the agricultural technicians on site, and finally the dishes produced by each household are uniformly produced by the village into net vegetables for sale. It is recorded in the "blockchain" back-end system.
Sun Renjin, a 61-year-old villager, tried to plant 4 points of land at his doorstep, and his name and exclusive QR code were printed on the sign on the ground. "Sweeping is the information of my vegetable plot. Others can still rate my vegetable plot." Sun Renjin is used to walking around the village for a week every day to rate 1 to 5 stars for other vegetable plots. The village controls this It ’s called “Grow your own dishes and take care of other people ’s business.” The process of “Taking care of business” is also simple. Sun Renjin showed us that through the “Yingshanhong” applet in WeChat, click “I want to rate” Earn real points through real-name evaluation of vegetable plots, beautiful gardens, etc .; through "I want to initiate", you can also organize public welfare activities to win points.
These designs are what motivate villagers to continue to participate in the project. When vegetables are produced, whoever sells their vegetables first and who sells them later must be "queued" according to the points. Villagers who are usually active in village affairs have the advantage of preferential sales. For this reason, Sun Renjin started to be greedy early and worked hard. The vegetables he planted were tender and tender, fully in line with the acquisition criteria, and because he loved "nosy business", he often ranked high for others to supervise and score. Through the unified acquisition in the village, he received an additional income of 40,000 yuan last year. "The secretary said that I have a high score, and next year I will be allowed to plant this land for free." Sun Renjin was happy.
Incentives don't stop there, giving priority to selling various agricultural products, giving priority to labor in village projects, giving priority to renting residential houses, giving priority to enjoying public services … all have been included in the "Yingshan Red Plan". Sun Renjin, who has never heard of what is a "blockchain", has virtually become a node in this "blockchain" of rural governance. Every time he participates, he becomes an immutable point, recording his Contribution.
Compared with traditional point incentives, the help of blockchain technology also makes the contribution statistics more accurate and scientific.
During the epidemic this year, the cadres of Dashigai Village launched a "recruitment of volunteers" activity on the platform. In just 5 minutes, a team of 15 people was assembled. They registered foreigners at the entrance of the village, and walked into the village to investigate. In the later period, the volunteer team expanded to 200 people, distributed in six village entrances on shift.
"Although participating volunteers can earn points, everyone's scores are not necessarily the same." Yao Chang, the technical leader of the platform, said that the final points of the volunteers must go through at least four or five procedures of "calibration": first according to each The basic points for the working hours of people checking in and out are given, together with the supervision and scoring of the person in charge of the bayonet and the spot check and score by the town government. Villagers who have passed the bayonet can also evaluate the performance of the bayonet. Throughout the process of duty, anyone who finds that a volunteer has violated regulations or dereliction of duty may report the deduction of points under his real name. Under such an assignment model, many data are aggregated to the blockchain analysis platform, and finally a portrait of each volunteer is formed.
After a few months of trial, the villagers of Dashigai Village gradually began to recognize the concept of "My contribution to the village determines my gain". Under the benign competition of having a “face” and preferential service “being affordable”, almost every household indirectly participates in village governance through mutual supervision and mutual promotion.
Yingshanhong becomes Manshanhong's "credit currency" with accurate identification and circulation
On the eve of the Spring Festival this year, Daicun Town held the first "Yingshanhong" New Year Festival in Dashigai Village, and Sun Guozhu clearly felt the village change for the first time.
Less than half an hour after the notice was issued, the villagers who once “dismissed” the village collective activities shouted one household, gathered together a hundred volunteers, and the souvenirs that were hospitality on the day of the event were provided by them for free. The 80-year-old man brought his pickled farm pickles. The skillful wives of each family contributed a bag of rice noodles to make mochi and hemp balls … The beautiful vegetable garden that has been hidden for a long time debuted. "Sister, our vegetables are fresh without medicine. You can take them home to try them." Villagers who used to have a dispute with a broken brick at the door of their house used to be generous and invited tourists to pick fresh vegetables for free. "Nothing is reluctant, just to let people in the city remember our" Yingshanhong "brand."
Yang Xing, chairman of the Hangzhou City Brand Promotion Association, was not surprised by the transformation of Dai Village. In her view, all problems facing rural governance are essentially brought about by the reconstruction of the rural economy. For thousands of years, farmers have been relying on the mountains to eat the mountains, and they can obtain economic returns by relying on land output. However, with the advancement of urbanization, some changes have taken place in this production model. "The" Yingshanhong Plan "began to consider how to allocate public resources in combination with governance guidance. If it really touches the essence of this problem, it can completely pry up and improve the effectiveness of rural governance." Yang Xing said, the application of "blockchain" technology guarantees The scientificity and fairness in this distribution process.
Looking at the whole country, Dai Village's attempt is not the first "marriage" of blockchain and village.
In Fengshan Village, Qingzhen City, Guizhou, local villagers have their own “identity chain”, and each person ’s traces of integrity and integrity points are associated with this ID. Through the blockchain platform "Fengshan Shuwu", villagers can not only learn about the various elements of the crop planting base in Fengshan Village, the current lighting conditions, etc., but also be able to see detailed information, credit scores, and credit traces of their participation in rural governance. Realized the intelligentization and digitization of rural grassroots governance.
Similar to the exploration of Dai villages and towns, these attempts are constantly inspiring the atmosphere of “village ownership” in the villages, and also reshaping the credit system among villagers, villagers and governments, and between villages and cities.
"Blockchain" goes to the countryside more than that, it also has a broader application scenario. If farmers often face loan difficulties due to lack of effective collateral, the application of "rural finance + blockchain" will help to form a new credit mortgage mechanism; combine agricultural insurance with blockchain, once agricultural natural disasters are detected , You can automatically start the payment process and reduce the incidence of fraud insurance …
Today, in addition to the initial vegetable growing project in Dashigai Village, the adoption of "running chicken", the selection of beautiful gardens, and epidemic prevention and control have all been moved to the "Yingshanhong" platform. "The 'Yingshanhong Plan' has fully formed an autonomous pattern of social collaboration, villager participation, and technology support." Deng Guosheng believes that "Yingshanhong" 's attempt to use the power of science and technology is a new idea of rural autonomy. The digitalization of this platform is also "growing".
"The more accumulation of score models such as bayonet duty, the more accurate the platform's determination of the contribution value of participating village affairs." For example, Yao Chang participated in a sanitation cleaning and risked his life to participate in epidemic prevention and control. The contribution value of the village should be different. In the future, the artificial contribution value judgment will be replaced by the technical judgment supported by big data. The value of each point is like "credit currency", and the identification and circulation in the countryside will be more accurate. Eventually, in this digital village, a new credit system will be established.
Return the village to the villagers, allowing the government to return to the role of supervisor and server. Right now, the "Yingshan Red Plan" is gradually being promoted to the whole town.
Dai Cunzhen looks forward to the fact that when Yingshanhong blooms again, the folk "Yingshanhong" can also be made full of red.