Recently, the "Opinions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council on Constructing a More Perfect Market-Oriented Allocation System for Factors" was officially announced. This is the first document of the central government on the market-based allocation of factors. The data and land, labor, capital, and technology in the "Opinions" are the reform directions of the five element areas. The data is written to a file for the first time as a new type of production factor.
Researchers of the computing power think tank found that the introduction of the Opinions has been widely interpreted by multi-track practitioners in the digital economy field including artificial intelligence, big data, and blockchain. However, the views of various industries are concentrated on the fact that the status of data as a new type of production factor is promoted is closely related to the background of the new crown epidemic crisis in 2020, which is the peak of the global peak. Enterprises must accelerate digital upgrading and embrace the digital economy to survive.
China Merchants Securities commented that data elements, as an important part of production factors, have significantly increased their importance to the economy. Paying attention to the role of data elements is essentially affirming the important role of the digital economy in the national economy. The scale of China's digital economy is currently $ 4.73 trillion, ranking second in the world, accounting for 34.8% of GDP. The rise of the digital economy and the advent of the new technology cycle will become one of the most important forces driving economic development.
Must maintain the necessary balance between data privacy protection and open data sharing
The sixth part of the "Opinions" in accelerating the cultivation of the data element market module focuses on three directions: promoting the open sharing of government data, enhancing the value of social data resources and strengthening data resource integration and security protection.
1. Promote the open sharing of government data. Optimize the basic database of economic governance, speed up the promotion of data sharing and exchange between departments in various regions, and formulate a new batch of data sharing responsibility lists. Study and establish institutional norms that promote the opening of public data such as enterprise registration, transportation, and meteorology, and the effective flow of data resources.
Second, enhance the value of social data resources. Cultivate new industries, new formats, and new models for the digital economy, and support the establishment of standardized data development and utilization scenarios in agriculture, industry, transportation, education, security, urban management, and public resource transactions. Give play to the role of industry associations and chambers of commerce, and promote the standardization of data collection in areas such as artificial intelligence, wearable devices, Internet of Vehicles, and Internet of Things.
3. Strengthen data resource integration and security protection. Explore the establishment of a unified and standardized data management system, improve data quality and standardization, and enrich data products. The study perfected the property right according to the nature of the data. Formulate data privacy protection system and security review system. Promote the improvement of the data classification and classification security protection system applicable to the big data environment, and strengthen the protection of government data, business secrets and personal data.
Yan Li, the founder of the hashpower think tank, believes that the "Opinions" release the signal: You must maintain the necessary balance between data privacy protection and data open sharing. On the one hand, improve the nature of property rights according to the nature of the data, and promote the data classification and security protection system. "Our computing power think tank has always been concerned about the direction of privacy computing. It is committed to empowering industrial data scenarios under the premise of accelerating the flow of factors and privacy protection. I believe that privacy computing will usher in historic development opportunities." Yanli said.
Privacy computing is considered data "refinery"
In order to usher in great development as a commodity and asset, data must first achieve data confirmation, circulation and privacy protection. Privacy computing provides a solution to achieve reasonable data flow and value capture based on multi-technology collaboration and interdisciplinary support.
As stated in the "Opinions", the nature of property rights should be improved according to the nature of the data. Data property rights follow the principle of separation of three rights, that is, ownership, processing rights, and usage rights must be separated. The ownership of the data cannot be bought or sold. Data assets can only transfer the right to use, the ownership is the user's. This is a glimpse of the government's determination to protect the data privacy of ordinary citizens in various rectification actions by the country in vigorously combating data crawlers' malicious abuse of and reselling user privacy data in 2019.
Privacy calculation is to calculate data without exposing the original data, and the calculation result can be verified. Sun Lilin, founder of Platon, has proposed on many occasions that privacy computing cannot be simply understood as a technology to protect users' privacy services. Its focus is more on the basis of realizing data use right transactions, that is, the basis of realizing the value of data. The transaction data itself is not traded, only the calculation result of the transaction data.
Therefore, privacy computing provides a reasonable and orderly transfer of data usage rights while amplifying the value of data usage across subjects. According to statics.com data, the global data market is expected to increase to US $ 103 billion by 2027, which is more than twice the expected market size in 2018, of which application-based data will account for 45% of the market share, which is 464 One hundred million U.S. dollars. The "Opinions" issued this time have consolidated the authority of the first year of privacy computing in 2020 from the central level.
Privacy computing under the new digital infrastructure to efficiently enable data scenarios
The Internet, financial technology giants, traditional financial institutions, medical institutions, etc. have invested in building privacy computing platforms and technology for many years. On the one hand, it is because the massive user privacy data stored by the centralized organization has a need to exchange value for use, on the other hand, it is limited by the privacy protection laws and regulations of various countries, including the European GDPR and the California CCPA. For example, Google launched an open source library for privacy and computing, and collaborated with data in a private and secure manner; the Ant blockchain launched the Morse secure computing platform, and has been widely used in joint financial risk control, fast insurance claims, people's livelihood, and multi-party joint marketing , Multi-party joint scientific research, cross-border data cooperation and other fields. Huawei launched the NAIE Federal Learning Service Platform, which penetrates into the operator's business and builds a smarter network.
The "Opinions" highlights the urgent need to accelerate the flow of data elements and capture the value of data sharing in areas such as government affairs, people's livelihood, transportation, education, and security.
Dr. Ran Yang, Chief AI Officer of PlatON, believes that in response to the "new infrastructure" era, the potential of information infrastructure construction based on privacy computing is huge. Like the 5G ecosystem in the new infrastructure, whether data security and privacy protection are resolved will determine the compliance process in the digital advertising industry, and will determine whether the SMS and MMS messages received by your 5G mobile phone are usable or spam.
In the new infrastructure, a health grading method (health code) based on personal travel data has an important role in protecting safety and ensuring the resumption of production during public health emergencies (epidemics).
The health code based on privacy calculation is completely different from the current solution based on the operator's location data. Multiple IOT data sources worn by users participate together and connect with various physiological data sources such as heartbeat, blood oxygen, and blood pressure. The devices all have digital identities, and the operating agencies (such as PlatON) provide local calculation of user data, and only need to return the verification results according to the verification rules. The final health status of the user can be generated without the need to aggregate calculations of the verification results of various data sources in the cloud. This further realizes cross-marketing on the basis of credible data sources, expands the accuracy of the launch of health applications, and gradually realizes the establishment of public health economic data services by various new infrastructure industries.
It is reported that in the field of privacy computing, TEE (trusted computing), MPC (secure multi-party computing), zero-knowledge proof, homomorphic encryption, federal learning and other technical genres have been produced, and have become market players competing for research and betting. Note the important track.