The POW consensus mechanism was first adopted by Bitcoin. Ethereum also extended the way of node mining. The miners competed to gain block rewards. However, in the case of Ethereum's average 15 seconds of block time, such a method can easily lead to the temporary fork of the blockchain, and those blocks that are not in the main chain will be confirmed as " lone blocks " and will be discarded. Caused a lot of computing power wasted. For the high discard rate of the block and the concentration of power, Ethereum adopted the GHOST protocol, which rewards miners who produce or discover orphans. This is also called the so-called block reward.
1. GHOST protocol description
In the Ethereum GHOST agreement, the judgment of the uncle block reward is also specified:
- The uncle block must be a direct sub-block of the ancestors of the first two layers to the first seven layers of the block;
- A block references up to two uncle blocks;
- The cited uncle can not be repeatedly referenced;
- The uncle block obtains the corresponding reward according to the uncle block reward formula (described later);
- The block that packs the unblock can get an additional 1/32 of the block reward , but can only reference at most two uncle blocks;
- Transaction costs are not allocated to the uncle.
As shown in the figure above, Block1* is used as a stub block and may be referenced by any block in Block2 to Block7 , but it is not allowed to be repeatedly referenced. According to the following block reward formula:
You can get the bonus value ( calculated as Base Reward=5 ) as shown in the following table :
|Block containing the block Block 1*||The bonus value obtained by the uncle block ( ETH )||Additional bonus value for the block ( ETH )|
2. Unknown block rate analysis
When a block broadcasts its own calculation results, it is often regarded as a non-block due to the failure of the network delay problem, which depends mainly on the amount of transactions packaged in the block. To pack more transactions, you must increase the block's Gas limit, and the unblock rate will increase. The two awards of Ethereum ( 2017.10.16 & 2019.2.28 ) are used as the demarcation point to analyze, as shown in the following table.
|time||Average unblock rate||Highest unblock rate||Minimum uncle block rate|
Among them, after the first reward reduction, the average value of the uncle block rate in the second stage has increased significantly, and the highest value has reached nearly 40% , and this period is also the heyday of the Ethereum transaction. The average of the first block and the third stage of the block rate is basically stable at 7% . The uncle block rate has a direct impact on the output of the Ethereum. The higher the uncle block rate means that the more Ethereum is dug out, then what factors have an impact on the U-block rate, we will be in the next Analyze.