What is Ethereum
Before our story begins, the author must start with Ethereum. What is Ethereum? Ethereum is an innovation that combines some of the technologies and concepts in Bitcoin with the computer world. The Bitcoin system is generally considered a decentralized system and the role of this system is to maintain a shared account book that securely records all bitcoin bills. Ethereum uses a number of mechanisms similar to Bitcoin, such as distributed technology and P2P networks, to maintain the flexibility and security to run any program the user wants (including bitcoin-like blockchain programs, of course). Shared computing platform. Bitcoin is a book of recorded currency, while Ethereum can be seen as a large computer: anyone can upload and execute applications, and all programs can rely on Ethereum's robustness. It is effectively executed. But this computer is extremely slow, about 5 to 100 times slower than a normal computer, and functionally similar to that of a fairly rare smartphone in the 1990s, so its capabilities are limited. It is also very expensive, and if the programmer wants to operate on this global computer, it needs to pay through Ethereum's proprietary cryptocurrency Ether. Ethereum computers require a lot of people to use it, run software on it to drive the network, and every node (computer) in the network runs an EVM (environment virtual machine). The EVM can be thought of as the operating system of this computer for understanding and executing software written in the Ethereum computer-specific programming language. Software or applications executed by the Ethereum virtual machine are called "smart contracts" that we often hear about.
[Holographic Encyclopedia: Robustness is also called anti-transformation, English: robustness was originally a term in statistics]
The founder of Ethereum, which we are now familiar with, is Vitalik Buterin, who is known as the Little Prodigy V. Born in Russia in 1994, she has been focusing on the mysteries of computers since childhood. She is addicted to mathematics icons and calculations. When she was 12, she wrote games in C++. Just for your own entertainment. The pattern of world outlook and outlook on life after adulthood is also much larger than that of peers. In 2013, V God, who returned from the University of Waterloo in Canada, was inspired by the restrictive application of Bitcoin at the time, using a common scripting language ( Go language), to create a new computing platform and a new cryptocurrency, the Ethereum white paper soon came out, the Ethereum was introduced in detail in the white paper. Vitalik vowed to use the blockchain to subvert the real economy, leading to the technology giants IBM, Samsung and investment bank giants Barclays Investment Bank and Credit Suisse have thrown olives to him.
V God has always been the founder of Ethereum in the public eye, so that few people know that the original proponents of the concept of Ethereum and the real main participation in the writing of Ethereum, others.
Godfather of Ethereum: Yanislav Georgiev Malahov
Yanislav was born in Bulgaria and is a German computer scientist. It is the founder of Aeternity, the famous German project launched in 2017.
Maybe written here, some people will be curious, so what is the connection between Yanislav and Ethereum? I am very difficult to answer this question, so I tried to explain the connection between Yanislav and Ethereum using some of Yanislav's own words and experiences.
Acquaintance in the autumn rain
This long story begins in the fall of 2013, when Yanislav worked as a lead developer with Vitalik on a project called Keidom (later changed to Ascribe.io), which was conceived by developing a color coin network. Wallet, ascribe is an open source solution that uses blockchain to protect digital creation, and creators can show their valuable projects directly to consumers. Based on the Bitcoin blockchain network, Ascribe's original proof-of-existence probabilistic consensus algorithm enables art to trace, transmit and share in a safe and non-tamperable manner. Between September and November 2013, the development team developed a prototype of ascribe's work.
In Yanislav's first trip to Berlin to participate in the Berlin Bitcoin Summer Party, he went to Barcelona with Vitalik and Mihai Alisie (founder of Ethereum, founder of Bitcoin magazine), when the famous Calafou camp was anarchist. communicate with.
The Calafou camp was also the famous anarchist hacker monastery at the time. The camp was located outside Barcelona, Spain. According to Jamie Barlett's The Dark Night, a Spanish hacker collectively set up a bitcoin hacking lab.
Called Calafou, a collective life test site for the transformation of old textile factories, it is often referred to as the “post-capitalist eco-industrial colony” by more than 30 residents living nearby. Here is a paradise for anarchists and social activists who live outside the capitalist system for a price of around €100 a month. The hackers who live here are called “Hackafou”. They spend a lot of time at this camp exploring ways to earn bitcoin. Here, cryptocurrency enthusiasts believe in anarchism and believe that cryptography-driven encryption will eventually become a means of changing the world and politics. I have seen a report in which Vitalik, who was curious and ambitious about the world of encryption, lived in a floorless room with a window, and communicated with cryptographers from all over the world, including Yanislav. These precious experiences have helped him to achieve Ethereum in the future. Here, Yanislav and Vitalik each found a lot of inspiration to help them later research and advance their projects.
Among them, the UnSystem organization is located in Calafou, and Vitalik later worked with the UnStystem organization to study the content of the dark wallet. After the trip to Calafou, Yanislav saw Vitalik again in Milan.
On the right is Vitalik and on the left is Yanislav. Photographed on the top of Montserrat near the Calafou camp in Barcelona
During this Vienna conference, Yanislav and Vitalik set a goal to work together on the Keidom (later renamed Ascribe) color package. From the beginning, they began a unique way of working in the encrypted world – distributed off-site work. At the time Vitalik went to Zurich and Yanislav returned to Berlin. About two weeks later, they met again at the Bitcoin conference in Amsterdam. After a brief gathering, Vitalik left Europe again. After going to Israel to open Mastercoin, it was renamed Omni. The release and trading of USDT used the Omni agreement. The Omni currency is the first 2.0 currency based on the Bitcoin blockchain. ) Started as a Mastercoin project (work, while Yanislav returned to Berlin for a short time and then traveled to Bulgaria in November.
Vitalik was called "the father of the Turing scripting language" by the founder of Mastercoin at the time, and Yanislav, who was far away from Berlin, kept in touch with Vitalik almost every day because of the project of colored coin purses, in mid-November. One night, Yanislav asked Vitalik about the actual situation of Mastercoin (with a chat record at the end of the paragraph). At the time, Yanislav claimed that he never took the time to understand mastercoin because he thought the white paper of this project was of poor quality, although Mastercoin was self-proclaimed at the time. Two bitcoins, and the rumors in the white papers are also written by Nakamoto. The only thing that Yanislav didn't realize was that in that late-night conversation in November, Ethereum might have been born. A few weeks later, when Yanislav read the Ethereum code on reddit, he immediately knew it meant What is it…
It was said that Vitalik had sent e-mails to their friends about the idea of Ethereum, and then their friends were forwarded to their friends. Finally, 10 to 20 people replied to him, and some of them later became Ethereum. The original founder. The author believes that it is a pity that there is no Yanislav in it. If he had beaten the world with Vitalik and Gavin, the Ethereum should be more powerful now. The plan for Constantinople will not be postponed, and there may be better and faster progress in fragmentation and expansion.
The first Ethereum party in Miami in January 2014, Yanislav second in the back row, Gavin Wood
On the Internet, the author turned to some chat records of Yanislav and Vitalik (I mainly compiled the second half of the chat history). In the first half of the chat record, Yanislav proposed the mastercoin2.0 proposal, if any user can post Mastercoin based on this agreement. . In the second half of the chat record, Yanislav also proposed a concept: If Mastercoin can be encoded in the Bitcoin main network, and the algorithm changes are embedded in the blockchain, this is a new concept! This concept is the later programmable language, and in this concept Vitalik is also considered cool. Yanisilav also immediately thought that this idea could be realized on the Prime King coin (XPM) of the then king of the altcoin, although Vitalik decided to make a new public chain, which was later Ethereum. But those familiar with the history of Ethereum should know that the earliest Ethereum was intended to be implemented on primecoin, which coincides with the news that followed. It also proves that we can't ignore Yanislav's inspiration for Vitalik's creation of Ethereum.
At the same time, Yanislav also proposed the concept of "Trojan horse". This concept was to deploy a contract on Ethereum in the way of creating a contract on Ethereum. It needed to issue a founding transaction. After the transaction was packaged, the contract was launched. Any subsequent execution on the chain is based on the code in the transaction, which is the "Trojan Horse."
The following are some of the chat history
[17.11.13 00:04:19] Yanislav:嘿
[17.11.13 00:04:24 ] Vitalik: 嘿
[17.11.13 00:05:04] Yanislav: I found a good program to import 'a block' to mongodb… https://github.com/thelinuxkid/bitcoinquery. (bitcoinquery can store Bitcoin blockchains in the MongoDB database to allow querying blocks and transaction data)
[17.11.13 00:05:13] Yanislav: It should also be applicable to primecoin and other projects.
[17.11.13 01:05:01] Yanislav: If msc can encode itself in the bitcoin blockchain… that would be cool!!
[17.11.13 01:05:27] Yanislav: I mean: if the algorithm changes are also embedded in the blockchain…
[17.11.13 01:05:33] Vitalik: Ok, that would be cool.
[17.11.13 01: 05:42] Vitalik: Although I would rather use the altcoin
[17.11.13 01:05:43] Yanislav: Can we do it with the xpm blockchain main network?
[17.11.13 01:05:45]Vitalik: xpm maybe (may)
[17.11.13 01:05:53] Yanislav: (y)
[17.11.13 01:06:02] Yanislav: Let us work together
[17.11.13 01:06:25] Vitalik: So, mastercoin on xpm has updated super-advanced features and source code on the chain.
[17.11.13 01:06 :34]Vitalik: In addition, the source code of the POS vote is also updated on the chain.
[17.11.13 01:06:43]Vitalik: Ok, we might have the first real DAC here. (DAC, the full name is Distributed Autonomous Corporation, Chinese can be translated into a distributed autonomous system. The so-called DAC is an organization system that can run autonomously without intervention and management through a series of open and fair rules. These rules often In the form of open source software, each person can acquire shares as a system shareholder by purchasing shares or providing services. The system's shareholders will be able to share the benefits of the organization, participate in system growth, and participate in the operation of the system.
[17.11.13 01:06:46] Vitalik: Ok, okay, it’s the second real DAC.
[17.11.13 01:06:50] Vitalik: The first one is bitcoin
[17.11.13 01:07:35] Yanislav: Mihai (referring to Mihai Alisie who founded Bitcoin magazine with Vitalik in 2011) also said the same thing, I created the micro-crowdfunding platform for thenewsbits.. is the first Two real dac
[17.11.13 01:07:43] vbuterins: Hehe
[17.11.13 01:07:50] Vitalik: I feel that you are competing with yourself.
[17.11.13 01:07:52] Yanislav: POS looks promising
[17.11.13 01:09:31] Yanislav: Yes… it is like the foundation of a new democratic algorithm system.
[17.11.13 01: 09:35] Yanislav: Democratic Algorithm
[17.11.13 01:10:46] Yanislav: If the 'algorithm' is also embedded (written) into the blockchain then the future will change. The problem with Msc (mastercoin) is that its algorithm is still in the centralized server.
(I hint that Mastercoin is not open source)
[17.11.13 01:11:04] Vitalik: Well, no, the algorithm of prime currency is open source.
[17.11.13 01:11:08] ] Vitalik: Everyone is running it
[17.11.13 01:11:20] Vitalik: But um, the algorithm on the blockchain
[17.11.13 01:12:57] Yanislav: How do we embed algorithms in blockchains?
[17.11.13 01:13:09] Vitalik: First choose a programming language
[17.11.13 01:13:18] Vitalik: Ideally it should be simple but powerful
[17.11.13 01:13:23] Vitalik: also simple
[17.11.13 01:13:53] Vitalik: But it may become a big problem
[17.11.13 01:14:00] Vitalik: What if someone issues an infinite loop code?
[17.11.13 01:17:12] Yanislav: …or a Trojan horse. But this (yet) is not the way it works. You also need to generate a creation tx (TXID: transaction code on the blockchain), all algorithms start from this (creation block) generation and start to produce differentiated coins.
[17.11.13 01:17:49] Yanislav: If an infinite loop is accidentally released, then this needs to be reversed with another tx (TXID: transaction number on the blockchain).
[17.11.13 01:18:30] Vitalik: Conversely, another tx will be interpreted according to the new rules, and the new rules will not accept any changes so they will continue to loop.
[17.11.13 01: 18:42] Vitalik: So it will get stuck
[17.11.13 01:19:06] Vitalik: Otherwise, you must have some kind of core "rules" that cannot be changed.
[17.11.13 01:19:13] Vitalik: Or (specified) may need a block of 10kb size to change
[17.11.13 01:23:14] Yanislav: When the algorithm is updated, the old algorithm is stopped and the new updated version of the algorithm will be executed. In fact, this can't be coded on the blockchain, but this is my only idea.
[17.11.13 01:23:30] vbuterins: In fact, this must also be editable.
[17.11.13 01:23:38] Yanislav: The stop and execution of this meta-algorithm startup.
Holy Grail of Distributed Computing
At the time, Yanisla offered to build something like Ethereum on Sunny King's Primecoin, similar to the contract, because Primecoin was the most advanced and innovative cryptocurrency at the time. In particular, it is of great significance in the proof of work. So, in the summer of 2013, Yanislav inspired the "Holy Grail of Decentralized Computing" with Primecoin's work proof. That is, finding computational problems that are difficult to solve and at the same time having a meaningful solution that is easy to prove, so that blockchain-based cryptocurrencies can be created and the digital currency used to solve the problem can be awarded. But Yanislav has never practiced and developed this idea in depth. After he inspired Vitalik, he continued to observe the development of Vitalik's Ethereum project for a while, and also participated in the first meeting of Miami in the Bitcoin conference in North America in January 2014, but finally decided not to participate more deeply for personal reasons. among them. Later, Yanislav spent a long time in San Francisco and Berlin, Ethereums CTO, Gavin Wood (the second male god of this article), and discussed the idea of developing a solution to the problem of blockchain technology scalability, later written by Gavin Wood. The "Taifang Huangpi Book" gave a lot of brainstorming. (mentioned later), it can be said that although Yanislav has never really participated in the development team of Ethereum, and has never received any form of compensation, but can not ignore his work for the birth of Ethereum.
Yanislav's story in the field of cryptocurrency certainly didn't end there, and he started a new blockchain project, Aeternity. If Ethereum's Turing completeness can improve the bitcoin's inability to achieve chain processing through blockchain technology, then Aeternity's Orcle machine is more powerful than the Turing machine. In essence, it is Turing machine plus black. Box – Anyone registered on the AE network can set "yes and no questions" and the question is whether it is answered at any time in the future. According to different durations, users need to submit different amounts of AE coins as margin. After the time has expired, if there is no counterclaim, the deposit will be returned to the user. If there is a counterclaim, the final result is decided by the machine. Aeternity, the main network, has been questioned because it has not been on the line. Coupled with the turmoil of the former CTO, I have to sigh the truth and principle of Europeans and Americans. From the entertainment circle to the technology circle, the tearing confrontation I personally ended up.
[Holographic Encyclopedia: Turing Machine, also known as Turing Computing, Turing Computer, is an abstract computing model proposed by mathematician Alan Messon Turing (1912 ~ 1954), which is about to use paper and pencil The process of mathematical operations is abstracted, and a virtual machine replaces people for mathematical operations. The so-called Turing machine refers to an abstract machine, which has an infinitely long strip of paper. The paper strip is divided into small squares, each square has a different color. There is a machine head that moves around the tape. The machine head has a set of internal states and some fixed programs. At each moment, the machine head reads a square information from the current tape, and then uses its internal state to find the program table, output the information according to the program to the paper square, and convert its internal state, then Move. 】
Representation of Turing machine concept map
Dr. Gavin Wood, the invisible brain of Ethereum
Every industry has a level ladder, and of course the programmers do the same. There was once a netizen who made an interesting chart and layered the programmer.
Legendary program 猿 level list
Because contemporary programmers cannot invent computers and the Internet through the past, the peak of programmers should be at the level of design and creation. If you can design the ALGOL language like Dijkstra, you propose three basic structures of programming: order, selection, loop; or, like Don Knuth, an important founder of the discipline of data structures and algorithms; or like Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie invented the Unix operating system and the powerful, efficient, flexible and expressive C language, which can be called the top programmers of the time. There are also such top programmers in the field of contemporary cryptography, such as Dr. Gavin Wood, who invented solidity, a scripting language that is very close to the Java Script language, and an object-oriented running machine in the Ethereum virtual machine (EVM). On the high-level language of smart contracts, he wrote the "Eaibafang Yellow Book" and almost contributed 80% of the code of Ethereum. He also first proposed the concept of Web3.0 in the paper, and later developed the Ethereum client Parity. The client, and the first time to write the Ethereum client in Rust language, founded the recent popular project Polkadot, this high-value British man has been in the image of the Ethereum invisible brain in the Ethereum enthusiast computer sea.
[ Holographic Encyclopedia: The author wants to explain the relationship between different computer languages here. Computers can be easily divided into high-level languages and low-level languages. The lower the language, the harder it is, the closer it is to the machine. Low-level languages can write high-level languages. Localized languages are low-level languages. Commonly used are Golang and Pascal languages. High-level languages are also called scripting languages. Scripting languages are generic and specific. For example, we have familiar C. Languages, Python, Java, Php, and NodeJS can do high-level languages; specific high-level languages such as Solidity contract language can only be run in Ethereum virtual machines.
If you want to use the music metaphor to explain the relationship between them, low-level languages such as Golang, Pascal, and high-level language C invented music, and the generic high-level language served as a arranger after music. A specific scripting language such as solidity is the role of a specific song.
Although C is a high-level language, it is the same level of God-level language as Pascal and Go. They are like the legendary existence of Genesis: C, Go, and Pascal can write in addition to assembly language. All language development platforms and compilers. Apple's earliest operating system was written in the Pascal language, but as Pascal's grammar is used less and less, with the gradual popularization of high-level languages, the number of people using C language has begun to decrease. C language, Pascal language and Go. They can write each other's development platforms and compilers. They can also create their own, evolve their own, and other languages can not create them.
(PHP is the best language in the world!!!)
The story of Gavin Wood and Ethereum began with a scene from 2013.
Prior to 2013, Gavin Wood had already focused on Bitcoin. At first, Bitcoin caught his attention. As a technical practitioner, he believed that Bitcoin had no practical application scenarios and technical breakthroughs. Until then he gradually realized that Bitcoin technology can be used in some real-world scenarios. So in 2013, he resumed research on the Bitcoin main network and its derivatives.
At the beginning of the year, Gavin Wood, a talented young man, was lying in bed and reading a newspaper bored. He turned to an article. A person with a bar in Berlin talked about anarchism in the newspaper. It has already begun. Some people try to use Bitcoin instead of the payment method in traditional commercial transactions. As a foreigner's perspective, Gavin Wood began to realize the importance of Bitcoin's payment scenario and saw the far-reaching significance of Bitcoin's ability to change the future. At this time, there was a place where people’s ideas coincided with the ideas of these Germans – illegal trade on the Silk Road, one of the infamous drug trading websites in the dark web using onion routing technology. The players gradually began to use Bitcoin to complete the transaction, and as of now, the transactions on the dark network are almost completed with Bitcoin and later Monroe.
This interesting person caused great interest from Gavin. He ran to London and he made a netizen's face, and then triggered a series of domino effects. Gavin Wood began to get to know more people in the field of cryptocurrency. In November 2013, 33-year-old Gavin met the 19-year-old Vitalik. The two hit it off. From then on, the two men began their life with Ethereum as their career and dominated by Ethereum. The author believes that this netizen's foundation is one of the century's bases in cryptocurrency.
At the time, Vitalik was inspired by Yanislav, and he has written a book called “Next Generation Smart Contracts and Distributed Applications”. He also began to think that Ethereum will be a deeper block than Bitcoin that will affect the whole society. Chain technology. So, starting in December 2013, Gavin began to personally set out to write the Ethereum Bible, "The Ethereum Yellow Book."
Everything went smoothly, and in late April 2014, Gavin's Ethereum Yellow Book, entitled "Ethereum: A Safe, Decentralized, General Accounting", was published. This energetic Ph.D. actually completed an Ethereum technical Bible in less than five months. Xiaobian really wants to ask him, is there a secret recipe for treating procrastination?
Ethereum original road map, released on July 23, 2014
For the former CTO of Ethereum, Gavin's contribution to the Ethereum code and technical support has always been the soul of Ethereum . So when Ethereum repeatedly delayed the escalation plan for Constantinople, an Ethereum core member also said frankly: "The main reason for the delay is related to Gavin's departure. He is the soul of Ethereum." However, until the end of 2015, Gavin Wood left Ethereum and he is still working on the entire ecology of Ethereum and Ethereum. He developed Prinity, the first client of Ethereum. Parity is an Ethereum client application developed in the Rust language. It features speed blocks, lightweight, and much better performance than the Goth Ethereum client written in Go. According to statistics, more than 40% of developers in Ethereum use the Parity client.
After the Parity project, Gavin announced at the Parity Tech conference in the same year that he would personally design Polkadot. The pokadot adopts nPOS design, mainly adopting cross-chain communication and data transmission. He combined web3 from the beginning of Polkadot's design. The concept of 0, the author's thinking about Web3.0 was also inspired by his paper. Dr. Gavin has been the foremost thinker in cryptography, and he has been thinking about the constant changes in the blockchain field with his own doers.
Some postscripts with Chinese stories
In the story of Ethereum, of course, there is also the color of our China. Founded in 2014, the company's distributed capital, led by Shen Bo, invested in the $500,000 price in 2015. Ethereum is a familiar story for all currency people. It is rumored that Ethereum was not optimistic about the public at the time, Vitalik began roadshows around the world, Ethereum was raised at very low prices, and distributed capital invested 416,000 Ethereum at the time of $500,000. The exchange rate of RMB 6.8973 against the US dollar, the final price of this investment in Ethereum is 8.29 RMB. Compared to the undervalued value of Ethereum, it is still more than 200 times the return, and at the December 2017 high, it is 1500 times the return. Distributed capital became famous because of Ethereum, and this investment is still the highest return on investment in distributed capital investment until now.
The fate of every project is closely related to his investors. Ethereum is no exception. Since December 5, 2016, Ethereum has been attacked by hackers. The hackers reportedly were the same people who attacked the krahen exchange at the time. The hackers continue to claim to have stolen Augar's $300,000 token REP, and the huge Ethereum in Shenbo's wallet. The hacker used the Shenbo Twitter account to authorize the transaction. The Poloniex exchange data showed that the REP price fell from 0.0035 btc ($2.60) at the time to 0.0026 btc ($1.96). Augur core developer Joey Krug admitted that the hacker had contacted himself and extorted $60,000, but he did not pay. But because the token is an unnamed digital asset, the project team can't cope with the user's attack. The price of Ethereum continued to decline in the air, and continued to fall from 8.59 US dollars. It finally fell to 6.05 US dollars when Shen Bo admitted the theft. In this incident, Chinese investors have also been greatly affected. There is a terrible thing that happens to the author. A friend of the author suffered from the experience of “He is here, the exchange is at the end” on the Chinese Bitcoin website (later ZB.com). In a windless afternoon, China Bitcoin's needle was stuck in his heart, and more than 15,000 Ethereums were smashed in China's bitcoin, which lost more than RMB 610,000. Because the young people did not understand the routine at that time, the friends of the amaranth attribute did not understand the routine of dichlorvos and rights protection, which eventually caused a catastrophic result of a sudden explosion and the loss of wealth.
Ethereum's December 2016 price trend recorded on CoinMarketCap
It seems that no matter whether it is a big investor or a small investor, the fate between himself and the project, the project and himself is tied together on the day of the intersection with the project he has invested in. There are many amazing history in the world of cryptocurrencies, and the future that we have always been optimistic about, so we are not willing to leave. The ancients cloud "is coming, it is safe." This sentence is very reasonable. Destiny brings every investor to the world of cryptocurrencies, and it has his deep meaning. You can't be mad at an attack, or even give up. It is a long way to grow in the secondary market of cryptocurrency. Every fan and investor in our stage is the predecessor of the latecomer. Everyone has to go anyway, no matter how good or bad they are. Going forward, the mind is actively going.
The original work of the holographic blockchain, the author's thoughts on the seal.
Holographic blockchain: We will record the blockchain through the story form and the introduction from the shallower to the deeper, and explore the holographic relationship between the blockchain, cryptography and the financial market as a whole microcosmic rule, like a blockchain holographic grating. , showing you the hologram of the blockchain world.