Essence Square Core Researcher Hsiao-Wei Wang: Answers to Ethereum 2.0

June 29, 2019, hosted by CSDN, Ling Titan Technology, Blockchain Base Camp, Unitimes, ETHPLANET, Ethereum Amateur Community, and Mars Finance and Economics, " 2019 Second Ethereum Technology and Application Conference " in Beijing·Great Wall The hotel was grandly held.

The conference will focus on Ethereum's ecological panorama, Ethereum's future development, Ethereum development and high-quality project cases, etc., and invite Ethereum founders and core technology developers, well-known project leaders at home and abroad, industry leaders and etherics. The experts of the ecological elites gathered here to jointly help the deep exchange of technology and community development in China Ethereum.

As one of the key guests of this conference, Ethereum core researcher Hsiao-Wei Wang shared a keynote speech entitled "Ethereum 2.0 and Beacon Chain Validator" in the morning session.

In the speech, Ethereum core researcher Hsiao-Wei Wang hopes that in the new year, there can be a stable version to do stable testne; the research on the development side can form an interaction in the future; the standardization and auditing of the new signature mechanism can be smooth and success.

The following is a speech by Hsiao-Wei Wang, a core researcher at Taifang:

Hello everyone! After listening to the wonderful speech of V God, we shifted the time to the recent Beacon and Ethereum 2.0. Nowadays, there are still many questions about the Ethereum field, including what is the Ethereum field? What is Beacon? What do you need to be a Beacon certifier? In addition, everyone is more concerned about Beacon, how is the mechanism different from the original? How does the follow-up plan on Beacon work? I hope that today's sharing will cover these questions and answer them as much as possible.

First of all, I will answer the question " Why does Ethereum 2.0 require Beacon Chain? " Ethereum has three phases, from the beginning of the beacon chain to the upper datachain segmentation chain, and later adds more advanced features, such as CBC.

Today my speech is focused on the Beacon Chain, which has several main features . For example, first, it replaces the original design. Now using the Beacon Chain core chain, you will choose to use Eth1 to refer to the current category, and the mortgage will be transferred to the Beacon Chain, so the Beacon Chain will be the core of the interaction in the entire system.

How do we motivate the verifier to do things through the agreement, not to do evil, and thus to achieve sustained and stable development. First of all, there must be a reward in it: proposer is a bit like the maner on Eth1, higher vote and higher reward, the above vote is called attestations, is the proof of the verifier, the process must sign the attestations, on behalf of hate Verified and responsible.

Secondly, as a Whistleblower to report malicious verifiers, the reporter is not necessarily the proposer himself, but if more Slashing Operation is included, he can get a higher reward. For example, when a proposer comes out of a block, he has two seemingly contradictory blocks. From his signature, he can be a malicious verifier. This kind of malicious verifier balance has a certain proportion transferred to the reporter; in addition, we encourage voting. To give a bonus, you must vote for it; there is also a Crosslink Reward, which is a real coupon through voting.

How to become a certifier of the beacon chain? First, a special contract deposit contract is deployed in the main chain of Eth1, and the contract accepts the mortgage paid by the user. This contract releases the event log every time a valid deposit is received. They have an important job to keep track of Eth1's information related to this contract, and may use technology to track the event log.

Once you have all the information, there will be a list of records, separating the different verifiers into different groups. Of course, we also have some mechanisms to prevent the generation of counts from being manipulated. Each Committees has a designated voucher, the process needs to be verified, and each bug will have some committes to verify.

Of course, not immediately added to the verifier is considered a valid and active verifier, and some need to be verified on the chain. After paying the deposit on Eth1, it will confirm whether its balance is sufficient and placed in the note, and will be released when the conditions are met. Currently set after 25 minutes, it will become a valid verifier when the time is up.

Next, what are the responsibilities of the verifier on Phase? About this direction, it can be roughly divided into two categories: one is selected poser, and the choice of proposer has multiple commits, one of which is selected. I want to give you a basic idea, what is a beacon block? It is a little different from Eht1. In all of the above transactions, similar transaction content can be called operations, very much, responsible for executing different operational content.

The position of the proposer, there are two special ones, you have to use your own key, so what is the first step of this result, only you know. As you can imagine, if you only control one dators, you can control whether it has the ability to randao. If you need to manipulate the random number generated on the network, you need to have an order of magnitude to control.

I have mentioned a lot of different rewards, and we have used some punishments to make users guilty of retribution. When your vote is in the majority, you will be rewarded; if you don't join it, it will be slightly deducted Balanced; if you are selected a comeet, if it is not good or not received, this kind of In the case of an "inactive punishment" mechanism, a small amount will be deducted from you; there is also a Casper FFG penalties part, if you are not in the middle will be a small penalty.

The three situations I just talked about are that you may be consciously trying to do good things, but the situation is not good, so that you can't make the right choices or do nothing. The situation behind this slasHing is very strict. There is evidence that you have to do bad things, so the punishment is more severe. For example, when the proposer establishes two, it may be reported.

The last one is Proof of Custody Game, then how do we make these proofs really have information on the vouchers? Once they are made, they will be asked to respond. This design is called proof of custody game, if there is no time to complete the challenge. Will be punished.

Just saw the penalty mechanism, Validator Churn, which refers to the change in the number of newly added sums. The Validator is scattered into different stamps. If there are a large number of Validator exits or joins in the coupon, it may cause less stability. In order to reduce this effect, we have designed two queues. According to the current number of all Validator among them, the number is as consistent as possible, and how many Validator has how many Beaconchain systems to meet the stability requirements.

Speaking of the exit mechanism, what if the Validator voluntarily withdraws? Need to put your own balance after the Send a Voluntary Exit operation. When it comes to Phase2, it will make the balance of eaconchain a little more meaningful and do more applications. In addition to the previous situation, there are two kinds of situations. If the balance is insufficient or the work is punished, the punishment will be stricter. It is necessary to make the withdrawal action after 36 days.

What can we expect from this year and early next year? First, I hope that everyone has a stable version to do stable testne; second, the current research on the development side, I hope to form an interaction. Third, we are also building standardization and auditing of the new signature mechanism . In addition, if all goes well, we will deploy the mortgage contract and open staking during the period; at the same time the phase is in progress. If you are concerned about GitHub, you are welcome to join, thank you!

Source: Blockchain Base Camp