Articles of Layer 2

Plasma's Fall: Who killed Plasma?

Foreword: Because Layer 1 expansion is not easy, Layer 2 expansion has always been an important exploration direction for blockchain expansion. The Ethereum community has proposed Plasma's solution, but it turned out that Plasma is very complicated in terms of withdrawal of funds and other issues, making it difficult to become a truly feasible scalability […]

Viewpoint | Meditations on Fault Proof (1)

Editor's Note: In general, we will consider Fault Proof as a concept related to Layer-2, which is the model that Layer-2 uses when reporting its status to Layer-1. But in this article, the author uses the general concept of erroneous proof, and considers how to design a erroneous proof mode to make SPV nodes (approximately […]

Vitalik: The layered structure of the blockchain still has shortcomings, and layer 1 and layer 2 need to be developed in parallel in the short term

Written in front: Ethereum co-founder Vitalik Buterin mentioned in his latest post " Basic Layer and Function Escape Speed " that "Keeping layer 1 simple and using layer 2 to make up for shortcomings" is not a solution to blockchain scalability and functionality The general answer to the question, because this idea does not take […]

The bridge for millions of users to enter the world of cryptocurrencies: an article to understand the Ethereum expansion solution ZK Sync

Written in front: This article was published by Matter Labs. The company has received funding from the Ethereum Foundation and has made some progress in terms of capacity expansion programs. It proposes a layer 2 solution in the article, which can meet the needs of millions of users without sacrificing decentralization, while ensuring privacy, and […]

Research on Layer 2 protocol review attack, Vitalik claims to synchronize 99% fault-tolerant consensus or solution

Translator's Foreword: Recently, blockchain researcher Ryuya Nakamura and others proposed a censorship attack strategy for the Layer 2 protocol. They believe that this attack is difficult to identify, and even if users recover through a soft fork, they cannot. Punish attackers without punishing honest verifiers. Other researchers from the Ethereum research community have suggested that […]

Is the Ethereum TPS 2000 enough? The capacity expansion is not as good as the Optimistic Rollup of Plasma.

“The Ethereum blockchain is about to be full.” This is what Vitalik Buterin said in an interview last month. He didn't lie; according to data from, Ethereum's network usage has been above 90% in the past few months, which is not a good sign. This is a big problem – if the Ethereum blockchain […]

Proof of validity and proof of error in Science-2 |

introduction In this paper, we will analyze and compare different Layer-2 scalability schemes from the difference between Fraud Proof and Validity Proof. We assert that, in contrast, proof of validity is fundamentally advantageous because the proof of validity scheme guarantees that only state transitions of the form will be accepted. background In recent months, proof-based […]

Vitalik Buterin: The dawn of the hybrid Layer 2 protocol

Written by: Vitalik Buterin The Chinese version is compiled by the chain. The current Ethereum Layer 2 expansion solution (mainly referring to Plasma and state channels) is moving from theory to practice. But at the same time, we are increasingly aware of the inherent challenges of these technologies, and there is still a certain distance […]

Detonating "under the chain", Celer Network will attend the 2019 than the original global developer conference

The last day of the "2019 than the original global developer conference". This conference is the second time to hold the blockchain global developer conference than the original chain. The conference invited Matrixport partner Daniel, ETC Labs director Darin, MATPool CTO Jin Lei, Celer co-founder Dong Mo, Multiplied founder Nancy, Algorand project Research leader Naveed, […]