Analysis: After Istanbul upgrade, the maximum TPS of Ethereum theory is 2048, but a new bottleneck has appeared

According to foreign media news today, the blockchain-based identity management solution company iden3 recently released the analysis results of testing Ethereum blockchain transaction throughput before and after the Istanbul upgrade and ZKRollup.


Source: Pixabay

The analysis concluded that after the Istanbul upgrade, using ZKRollup, the maximum theoretical limit that Ethereum can handle is 2048 tps. This number is lower than the 3000 tps requirement of Ethereum developer Eric Conner, but it is still higher than VISA. 2000 tps. Prior to the upgrade, Ethereum could only process 30 transactions per second.

Two of the Ethereum Improvement Proposals (EIPs) brought by the Istanbul upgrade are EIP-1108 (reducing the price of zk-SNARK by repricing gas) and EIP-2028 (the cost of calling data from 68 per byte The gas is reduced to 16 gas per byte. In the past, sending transactions on the Ethereum blockchain required 21,000 gas costs. ZKRollup reduced the cost to only 945 gas, while Istanbul further reduced it to only 300 gas.

The analysis also warns that the mentioned 2048 tps is only the theoretical maximum, and adds that, in fact, things are not that simple. A throughput of 2048 tps will require 15 batch transactions to be placed in a block, and the batch creation time is only one second (assuming a block time of 15 seconds). The iden3 team also talked about how each zkRollup batch requires a short password proof (zk-SNARK) to prove the integrity of the transactions in that batch. The company also explained how to generate this proof is computationally very expensive, adding that this is the main bottleneck in reaching the theoretical throughput limit.

"Currently, you can imagine this. With one CPU and three GPUs, we need a few minutes to generate such a proof."

Even setting aside the bottleneck of proof generation, setting up a server capable of processing 2,000 transactions per second is not an easy task. According to the analysis, only all the information needs to be processed, and an advanced block browser is required. As Ethereum developers continue to build the network, parallelization may be achieved in the future, reducing proof generation time and maintaining reasonable costs.

We will continue to update Blocking; if you have any questions or suggestions, please contact us!


Was this article helpful?

93 out of 132 found this helpful

Discover more


Binance Adds Some Fusion Flair with ACE, the 40th Marvelous Project on Launchpool!

Attention all Fashionistas! Binance just revealed their latest Launchpool project, Fusionist (ACE), which is the excl...


The Digital Yuan Strikes Oil: Cross-Border Transaction Goes Crypto

PetroChina International makes history by closing a cross-border oil transaction using digital yuan for the first time.


Fed's Rate Rollercoaster Steady for Now, but Get Ready for 3 Cuts in 2024 as Core PCE Falls to 2.4%

The Federal Reserve has decided to maintain the borrowing rate at 5.25-5.5 percent for the third consecutive time, ac...


China’s Blockchain Dance: From Banning Cryptos to Verifying Identities with RealDID

China's Ministry of Public Security is implementing a revolutionary blockchain technology, RealDID, to validate citiz...


CryptoQuant Reveals Potential Impact of Bitcoin Spot ETFs on Crypto Market

Discoveries from CryptoQuant on the potential influence of Bitcoin ETFs on the crypto market have been unveiled.


The 54th World Economic Forum in Davos: Rebuilding Trust

The Davos 2024 World Economic Forum brings together influential leaders from around the world to address a wide range...