AltLayer: How to perform decentralized Rollup state verification using Beacon Layer?

AltLayer: Decentralized Rollup state verification using Beacon Layer - How to?

AltLayer’s Beacon Layer plays a critical role as a decentralized Rollup verification layer, providing stronger guarantees of finality and reducing the cost of Rollup operations. YQ, the founder of AltLayer, has written an article analyzing and interpreting the advantages of decentralized verification and the different layers of finality provided by the Beacon Layer.

Currently, in most dApps, the sorter immediately updates the state after issuing a transaction receipt to provide soft finality. This also means that there is a risk of malicious actors in centralized sorters not publishing transaction data to Layer1. However, decentralized validation solves this problem. Decentralized validation brings “harder-than-soft” finality, increasing transaction credibility. It can also help middleware providers reduce operating costs by not having to operate their Rollup nodes.

The Beacon Layer introduces a layered finality system, with the first layer utilizing a decentralized sorter to run the consensus protocol to provide “harder” soft finality. The second layer achieves finality through validity proof, with the sorter submitting new and old state roots to Layer1, which checks if the state changes are correct. It is also unlikely that the Beacon will generate invalid state roots and can detect any fraudulent behavior by sorters. In the third layer, a “challenge period” is introduced after committing transaction data and L1 new state. If the proposed state commitment is not challenged during this period, it is considered final. Otherwise, it reverts to the old state root.


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